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Tra­duc­tions
(mise à jour : 17 octobre 2014)
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Le texte « Une mau­vaise consti­tu­tion… » a été tra­duit par des lec­teurs enthou­siastes :o)
Voi­ci le résul­tat éton­nant de leur tra­vail considérable.

À part la ver­sion anglaise, je n’ai pas véri­fié la fia­bi­li­té des tra­duc­tions (j’en suis bien inca­pable),
mais je leur fais confiance et je m’appuie sur le prin­cipe fort que les idées n’ont pas de pro­prié­taire :o)

 
Langue


Titre et date du docu­ment traduit


Traducteur(s)
 

Alle­mand

Eine schlechte Ver­fas­sung die ein ver­bor­genes Krebs­ges­chwür unse­rer Demo­kra­tie ans Licht bringt
Mar­seille, den 24. April 2005

Ange­la Anakonda

Anglais

A bad Consti­tu­tion which reveals a can­cer in our demo­cra­cy
Trets (Mar­seille). Upda­ted 2005, 17 june
.

Anne, Brooke, Mal­colm, Nico­las, Odile, Peter, Pierre, Rai­lane, Sébas­tien, Tan­guy, Yves

Espa­gnol

Una mala consti­tu­ción que reve­la un cán­cer secre­to de nues­tra demo­cra­cia
Mar­sel­la,  21 de abril de 2005.

Je vous signale aus­si ce blog espa­gnol : http://​insa​cu​la​cion​.blog​spot​.ch/

El sorteo y las cámaras sorteadas como mejoras institucionales de la democracia.

Etienne Chouard, pre­sentó sus aná­li­sis per­so­nales sobre el Tra­ta­do Consti­tu­cio­nal euro­peo. Durante la cam­paña que ante­ce­dió al refe­rén­dum convo­ca­do en Fran­cia, su sitio web se hizo ver­da­de­ra­mente popu­lar en Fran­cia. En contraste con los nebu­lo­sos dis­cur­sos ofi­ciales, la cla­ri­dad de sus argu­men­tos des­pertó el inter­és de un amplio sec­tor del públi­co que consi­de­ra que « lo que bien se concibe, se anun­cia cla­ra­mente ». Este blog inten­ta reu­nir todo el mate­rial dis­po­nible en español… y algo mas. […]

 

Yves Ropars

Espe­ran­to

Mal­bo­na kons­ti­tu­cio, kiu mal­kaŝas sekre­tan kan­ce­ron de nia demo­kra­tio
teks­to ĝis­da­ti­gi­ta je la 12‑a de apri­lo 2005

Tra­du­ki­ta de J.M. Cash, Emile Mas kaj D. Couturier

Ita­lien

Una cat­ti­va cos­ti­tu­zione che rive­la un  can­cro segre­to del­la nos­tra demo­cra­zia
21 mai 2005

alessandro.mirone@wanadoo.fr

Néer­lan­dais
Fla­mand

Een slechte grond­wet die een geheime kan­ker van onze demo­cra­tie aan het licht brengt
Tekst laatst her­zien op 1 mei 2005

Gaë­tan Dubois pour la langue et Geert De Baets pour l’informatique :o)

Danois

En dår­lig for­fat­ning, som afslø­rer en skjult kræfts­vul­st i vores demo­kra­ti (pdfhtmrtf)
Opda­te­ret 17. juni 2005

Traduction/oversættelse : Fen­ja af Fano (mars 2007)

Source des dra­peaux : http://​atlas​geo​.span​.ch/​f​l​a​gs/

 
Mes confé­rences du prin­temps sur les enjeux de la CRÉATION MONÉTAIRE publique

et sur la cen­tra­li­té du TIRAGE AU SORT dans une démo­cra­tie digne de ce nom

sont en cours de tra­duc­tion avec le même dévoue­ment, c’est for­mi­dable :o)

Voi­là où nous en sommes, par­tie par par­tie : vous trou­ve­rez ci-dessous

les vidéos sous-titrées et les fichiers des sous-titres (déjà tra­duits ou à traduire) :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Langue

 

Confé­rence de Mar­seille (23 avril 2011) :
1ère par­tie : 
les enjeux de la créa­tion monétaire

Étienne Chouard – confé­rence sur la créa­tion… par culture-libre 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Traducteur(s)

Fran­çais

1‑CreationMonetaire-fr.isf OK.Éric

Alle­mand

  

Anglais

1‑CreationMonetaire-en.isf OK.Éric

Espa­gnol

  

Espe­ran­to

  

Ita­lien

  

Néer­lan­dais
Fla­mand

  

Danois

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Langue

 

Confé­rence de Mar­seille (23 avril 2011)
2ème par­tie : Infla­tion et chômage

Etienne Chouard sur l’in­fla­tion par culture-libre 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Traducteur(s)

Fran­çais

2‑InflationChomage-fr.isf OK.Éric

Alle­mand

  

Anglais

 

Espa­gnol

  

Espe­ran­to

  

Ita­lien

  

Néer­lan­dais
Fla­mand

  

Danois

  

Por­tu­gais

2‑InflationChomage-po.isf OK.Rémi le Touareg

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Langue

 

Confé­rence de Mar­seille (23 avril 2011) :
3ème par­tie :
Le tirage au sort comme bombe
poli­ti­que­ment durable contre l’o­li­gar­chie
 :

Étienne Chouard – Confé­rence : Le tirage au sort… par culture-libre

Mer­ci à tous pour votre gen­tillesse et pour votre dévoue­ment !
On sera plus forts quand on sera plus nom­breux sur terre
à avoir com­pris cette clef de lec­ture cen­trale
de notre impuis­sance politique. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Traducteur(s)

Fran­çais

3‑TirageAuSort-fr.isfÉric

Anglais

 

3‑TirageAuSort-en.isf OK.

Ce chan­tier consi­dé­rable paraît prêt. MERCI !

 

Alle­mand


3‑TirageAuSort-al.isf OK.

Ce chan­tier consi­dé­rable paraît prêt. MERCI !

 

Espa­gnol

3‑TirageAuSort-es.isf OK.

Ce chan­tier consi­dé­rable paraît prêt. MERCI !

 

Por­tu­gais

LIENS pour le chan­tier col­lec­tif PORTUGAIS
avec Google Doc :

• Frag­ment 01, minutes 1 à 14 En cours…

• Frag­ment 02, minutes 15 à 30 En cours…

• Frag­ment 03, minutes 30 à 45 En cours…

• Frag­ment 04, minutes 45 à 60 En cours…

• Frag­ment 05, minutes 60 à 75 En cours…

• Frag­ment 06, minutes 75 à 90 En cours…

 

Ita­lien

LIENS pour le chan­tier col­lec­tif ITALIEN
avec Google Doc :

• Frag­ment 01, minutes 1 à 14 En cours…

• Frag­ment 02, minutes 15 à 30 En cours…

• Frag­ment 03, minutes 30 à 45 En cours…

• Frag­ment 04, minutes 45 à 60 En cours…

• Frag­ment 05, minutes 60 à 75 En cours…

• Frag­ment 06, minutes 75 à 90 En cours… 

 

Néer­lan­dais
Fla­mand

  

Danois

  

 


Langue

Confé­rence de Six-Fours (20 février 2011) :
L’exemple amé­ri­cain de
l’ar­naque de la créa­tion moné­taire pri­vée (Fed)
et de l’im­pôt sur le reve­nu
 

Traducteur(s)

 

 

 


Fran­çais 
OK.

Anglais OK.

Espa­gnol OK.

Alle­mand

 

 

 

 Hugues

Espe­ran­to

  

Ita­lien

  

Néer­lan­dais
Fla­mand

  

Danois

  

Il y a plu­sieurs fils de dis­cus­sion à pro­pos des tra­duc­tions des vidéos :

Chers amis,

J’ai l’im­pres­sion que vous êtes nom­breux par ici à ne JAMAIS mettre les pieds sur Face­book, par prin­cipe ou par pru­dence. (On peut remar­quer qu’in­ver­se­ment, il y a un grand nombre d’ha­bi­tués de Face­book qui y trouvent presque tout leur compte et n’en sortent que rarement.)

C’est pour­quoi je vous reco­pie ici quelques traces du tra­vail extra­or­di­naire que mènent (tous les jours) les « gen­tils virus tra­duc­teurs », en uti­li­sant Face­book et Amara.

https://​www​.face​book​.com/​g​r​o​u​p​s​/​v​i​r​u​s​t​r​a​d​u​c​t​e​u​r​s​/​f​i​l​es/

Ce tra­vail col­la­bo­ra­tif de com­pi­la­tion et de tra­duc­tion peut sûre­ment ser­vir à ceux qui refusent de mettre les pieds sur Face­book mais veulent quand même aider à dif­fu­ser en d’autres langues le mes­sage radi­cal que « ce n’est pas aux hommes au pou­voir d’é­crire les règles du pou­voir ».

Je vous remer­cie tous pour votre dévoue­ment ; très émou­vant ; et ravigotant 🙂

Étienne.

Vidéos Tra­duites
Par Luis Bical­ho dans Équipe des Virus Traducteurs

https://​www​.face​book​.com/​g​r​o​u​p​s​/​v​i​r​u​s​t​r​a​d​u​c​t​e​u​r​s​/​d​o​c​/​2​6​8​7​8​9​8​6​6​5​5​1​3​24/

Ci-des­sous la liste de toutes les tra­duc­tions terminées.

VIDÉOS TRADUITES :

L’ar­naque de l’im­pôt sur le reve­nu (6minutes) @Six-Fours du 20/02/11
Vidéo ori­gi­nale (Fran­çais, Anglais, Alle­mand, Espa­gnol)
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​g​d​z​l​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​-​a​r​n​a​q​u​e​-​d​e​-​l​-​i​m​p​o​t​-​s​u​r​-​l​e​-​r​e​v​e​n​u​_​n​ews

Vidéo tra­duite sur Ama­ra (Fran­çais, Anglais, Alle­mand, Espa­gnol)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​z​4​u​t​U​r​P​7​5​G​t​c​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​a​r​n​a​q​u​e​-​d​e​-​l​i​m​p​o​t​-​s​u​r​-​l​e​-​r​e​v​e​nu/

Par­tie 1 de la Confé­rence @Marseille du 23/04/11 : les enjeux de la créa­tion moné­taire
Vidéo ori­gi­nale sous-titrée (Fran­çais, Anglais)
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​h​t​u​k​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​c​r​e​a​t​i​o​n​-​m​o​n​e​t​a​i​r​e​-​m​a​r​s​e​i​l​l​e​_​n​ews

Ama­ra
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​k​h​a​E​N​b​7​v​c​E​8​X​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​c​r​e​a​t​i​o​n​-​m​o​n​e​t​a​i​r​e​-​m​a​r​s​e​i​l​le/

Par­tie 2 : infla­tion et chô­mage
Vidéo ori­gi­nale sous-titrée (Fran­çais, Por­tu­gais)
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​j​d​u​w​v​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​-​i​n​f​l​a​t​i​o​n​_​n​ews

Ama­ra
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​Y​u​W​p​Z​2​d​B​6​9​w​n​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​i​n​f​l​a​t​i​on/

Par­tie 3 : Le tirage au sort comme bombe poli­ti­que­ment durable contre l’o­li­gar­chie
Vidéo ori­gi­nale sous-titrée (Fran­çais, Alle­mand, Anglais, Espa­gnol)
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​y​z​h​h​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​c​o​m​m​e​-​b​o​m​b​e​-​p​o​l​i​t​i​q​u​e​m​e​n​t​-​d​u​r​a​b​l​e​-​c​o​n​t​r​e​-​l​-​o​l​i​g​a​r​c​h​i​e​_​n​ews

Ama­ra
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​c​z​m​0​5​e​H​C​s​q​Y​b​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​c​o​m​m​e​-​b​o​m​b​e​-​p​o​l​i​t​i​q​u​e​m​e​n​t​-​d​u​r​a​b​l​e​-​c​o​n​t​r​e​-​l​o​l​i​g​a​r​c​h​ie/

Confé­rence @TEDX
Vidéo ori­gi­nale sous-titrée (Fran­çais, Anglais, Espa­gnol, Ita­lien, Portugais)

Vidéo tra­duite sur Ama­ra (Fran­çais, Anglais, Espa­gnol, Por­tu­gais, Ita­lien, Sué­dois, Rou­main, Cata­lan, Bul­gare) Hon­grois en cours.
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​G​H​n​N​a​j​2​1​B​E​V​m​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​h​e​r​c​h​e​u​r​-​e​n​-​c​a​u​s​e​-​d​e​s​-​c​a​u​s​e​s​-​t​e​d​x​r​e​p​u​b​l​i​q​u​e​s​q​u​a​re/

Avec Syl­vain Durain (La liber­té d’ex­pres­sion)
Vidéo tra­duite sur Ama­ra (Fran­çais, Anglais)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​a​T​x​m​O​b​2​k​Z​j​W​m​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​a​-​l​i​b​e​r​t​e​-​d​e​x​p​r​e​s​s​i​o​n​-​l​a​-​v​r​a​i​e​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​l​a​-​c​u​l​t​u​re/

Vidéos trans­crites en cours de Tra­duc­tion !
Par Ben­ja­min Poly, Pas­cal Nime et Luis Bical­ho dans le Équipe des Virus Traducteurs

https://​www​.face​book​.com/​g​r​o​u​p​s​/​v​i​r​u​s​t​r​a​d​u​c​t​e​u​r​s​/​d​o​c​/​2​6​8​8​1​0​6​1​3​2​1​5​9​16/

Pour les nou­veaux … et les autres aus­si ! Voi­ci les chan­tiers ouverts, et toute les vidéos dont la trans­crip­tion en fran­çais est terminée.

Y sont indi­quées les tra­duc­tions com­men­cées, et celles qui néces­sitent encore une relecture !

N’hé­si­tez pas à com­men­cer une tra­duc­tion dans la langue que vous connais­sez, les autres vous aide­ront ! Signa­lez-vous sur le groupe !

Confé­rence TEDX (ter­mi­née en Fran­çais, Anglais, Espa­gnol, Cata­lan, Por­tu­gais, Ita­lien, Rou­main, Sué­dois, Bulgare)

http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​G​H​n​N​a​j​2​1​B​E​V​m​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​h​e​r​c​h​e​u​r​-​e​n​-​c​a​u​s​e​-​d​e​s​-​c​a​u​s​e​s​-​t​e​d​x​r​e​p​u​b​l​i​q​u​e​s​q​u​a​re/

Por­tu­gais (bré­si­lien) : 100% BESOIN d’une RELECTURE
Ita­lien : 100%, BESOIN d’une RELECTURE
Cata­lan : IDEM
Rou­main : IDEM
Hon­grois : 9 %
Si vous faites la relec­ture, signa­lez-vous, merci !…

Confé­rence de Genève avec Myret Zaki (Fran­çais à ter­mi­ner !)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​6​3​A​7​L​L​x​5​1​3​7​b​/​i​n​f​o​/​l​e​t​a​t​-​e​t​-​l​e​s​-​b​a​n​q​u​e​s​-​l​e​s​-​d​e​s​s​o​u​s​-​d​u​n​-​h​o​l​d​-​u​p​-​h​i​s​t​o​r​i​q​u​e​-​p​a​r​-​m​y​r​e​t​-​z​a​k​i​-​e​t​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​rd/

Anglais : 124 lignes
Alle­mand : 7%
Espa­gnol : 3%

Guille­min explique Robes­pierre et la révo­lu­tion fran­çaise
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​t​4​W​d​d​S​i​g​b​n​L​J​/​i​n​f​o​/​h​e​n​r​i​-​g​u​i​l​l​e​m​i​n​-​e​x​p​l​i​q​u​e​-​r​o​b​e​s​p​i​e​r​r​e​-​e​t​-​l​a​-​r​e​v​o​l​u​t​i​o​n​-​f​r​a​n​c​a​i​s​e​-​12/

http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​z​7​c​n​D​B​w​Y​f​o​C​o​/​i​n​f​o​/​h​e​n​r​i​-​g​u​i​l​l​e​m​i​n​-​e​x​p​l​i​q​u​e​-​r​o​b​e​s​p​i​e​r​r​e​-​e​t​-​l​a​-​r​e​v​o​l​u​t​i​o​n​-​f​r​a​n​c​a​i​s​e​-​22/

Confé­rence à Mar­seille : Le tirage au sort comme bombe poli­ti­que­ment durable contre l’o­li­gar­chie (ter­mi­née en Alle­mand, Anglais, Fran­çais, Espagnol)

http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​c​z​m​0​5​e​H​C​s​q​Y​b​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​c​o​m​m​e​-​b​o​m​b​e​-​p​o​l​i​t​i​q​u​e​m​e​n​t​-​d​u​r​a​b​l​e​-​c​o​n​t​r​e​-​l​o​l​i​g​a​r​c​h​ie/

ROUMAIN 1%
Ita­lien : 90% espace de tra­vail ici=> PARTIE 6, https://​docs​.google​.com/​d​o​c​u​m​e​n​t​/​d​/​1​b​m​y​l​j​w​u​G​m​k​F​q​L​a​J​B​Q​6​P​U​x​q​q​_​e​C​M​7​_​G​f​-​j​g​g​5​f​g​B​x​3​d​s​/​e​d​i​t​?​h​l​=fr
Por­tu­gais : espace de tra­vail ici => PARTIE 1
https://​docs​.google​.com/​d​o​c​u​m​e​n​t​/​d​/​1​4​E​M​K​o​o​K​H​-​_​o​8​M​P​n​y​h​Y​3​o​z​x​u​6​X​Y​7​h​y​_​a​y​G​Q​u​s​Z​F​f​O​f​Z​U​/​e​d​i​t​?​h​l​=fr
https://​docs​.google​.com/​d​o​c​u​m​e​n​t​/​d​/​1​P​m​Z​v​i​a​d​q​v​4​S​i​l​t​9​x​Q​3​r​x​M​d​N​J​7​F​p​a​C​x​U​P​S​m​5​d​7​3​Z​Q​9​2​g​/​e​d​i​t​?​h​l​=fr

Confé­rence de Mont­pel­lier 14/03/12 (Fran­çais, Espa­gnol ter­mi­né) http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​h​8​Z​F​g​j​y​L​G​e​X​S​/​i​n​f​o​/​l​a​-​v​r​a​i​e​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​m​o​n​t​p​e​l​l​i​e​r​-​1​4​-​m​a​r​s​-​2​0​12/

Anglais (33%)

Avec Syl­vain Durain (Le pro­blème du vol moné­taire)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​G​p​n​X​P​K​3​E​U​J​f​O​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​-​p​r​o​b​l​e​m​e​-​d​u​-​v​o​l​-​m​o​n​e​t​a​i​r​e​-​e​t​-​d​e​-​l​a​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​t​i​on/
Anglais 239 lignes

Confé­rence de Lyon (ouverte aux tra­duc­tions!)
Par­tie I
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​S​E​v​2​j​t​y​d​Y​o​A​X​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​p​a​r​t​i​e​-​i​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​d​e​-​l​y​o​n​-​m​a​r​s​-​2​0​12/
Anglais (31%)

Par­tie 2
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​k​y​a​a​Z​h​u​T​W​n​s​q​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​p​a​r​t​i​e​-​i​i​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​d​e​-​l​y​o​n​-​m​a​r​s​-​2​0​12/

Par­tie 3
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​Z​7​a​I​7​Z​S​l​a​w​R​O​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​p​a​r​t​i​e​-​i​i​i​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​d​e​-​l​y​o​n​-​m​a​r​s​-​2​0​12/

Par­tie 4
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​Z​w​E​m​r​D​f​B​j​C​R​l​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​p​a​r​t​i​e​-​i​v​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​d​e​-​l​y​o​n​-​m​a​r​s​-​2​0​12/

Confé­rence de Metz (ouverte aux tra­duc­tions !)
16
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​P​A​5​j​l​H​u​0​J​I​E​h​/​i​n​f​o​/​1​6​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​m​e​t​z​o​c​t​2​0​1​1​-​e​n​j​e​u​x​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​t​i​on/

10 rai­sons de sor­tir de l’UE 13 (ouverte aux tra­duc­tions !)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​5​I​u​b​v​Y​l​p​K​1​s​s​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​1​0​-​r​a​i​s​o​n​s​-​d​e​-​s​o​r​t​i​r​-​d​e​-​l​u​n​i​o​n​-​e​u​r​o​p​e​e​n​ne/

RUSSE : 31 lignes

Trans­crip­tion de la par­tie 23
Dot­sub
http://dotsub.com/view/a829af0b-4317–4819-9110–1054146956e3

Trans­crip­tion de la par­tie 3/3
Dot­sub
http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​b​8​7​0​f​f​f​3​-​2​4​9​d​-​4​c​2​0​-​9​4​2​f​-​f​0​e​4​1​6​6​2​c​1ff

Avec Syl­vain Durain (La liber­té d’ex­pres­sion)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​a​T​x​m​O​b​2​k​Z​j​W​m​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​a​-​l​i​b​e​r​t​e​-​d​e​x​p​r​e​s​s​i​o​n​-​l​a​-​v​r​a​i​e​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​l​a​-​c​u​l​t​u​re/

Trans­crip­tion de la Par­tie 2 sur Dot­sub :
http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​1​2​6​3​c​f​f​7​-​2​d​1​5​-​4​6​4​1​-​b​b​5​9​-​9​c​a​0​6​a​a​6​b​511

Avec Syl­vain Durain (La nov­langue)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​2​E​G​o​P​B​y​E​X​5​L​f​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​s​-​a​b​u​s​-​d​e​-​l​a​n​g​a​g​e​-​e​t​-​l​a​-​n​o​v​l​a​n​g​ue/

Avec Syl­vain Durain (La dette et la fin de l’E­tat pro­vi­dence)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​B​L​6​W​V​Q​Q​d​R​6​5​A​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​a​-​d​e​t​t​e​-​e​t​-​l​a​-​f​i​n​-​d​e​-​l​e​t​a​t​-​p​r​o​v​i​d​e​n​ce/

L’ar­naque de l’im­pôt sur le reve­nu (ter­mi­née en anglais, espa­gnol, alle­mand, fran­çais)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​z​4​u​t​U​r​P​7​5​G​t​c​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​a​r​n​a​q​u​e​-​d​e​-​l​i​m​p​o​t​-​s​u​r​-​l​e​-​r​e​v​e​nu/

@Radio Ici et Main­te­nant 04/05/2012
Par­tie I
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​M​4​q​x​L​g​A​N​T​t​B​o​/​i​n​f​o​/​r​i​m​-​2​0​1​2​0​5​0​4​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​12/

@Rendez-vous Blanc 16/02/2012
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​U​g​9​3​Y​4​j​8​Y​t​Z​j​/​i​n​f​o​/​i​n​t​e​r​v​i​e​w​-​d​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​d​e​t​t​e​-​p​u​b​l​i​q​u​e​-​e​t​-​l​e​-​p​r​o​j​e​t​-​d​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​te/

Jacques Tes­tart sur les confé­rences de citoyens
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​j​t​X​g​i​J​V​8​j​X​I​4​/​i​n​f​o​/​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​s​-​d​e​-​c​i​t​o​y​e​n​s​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​d​i​r​e​c​te/

Liste de toutes les vidéos !!! EN CONSTRUCTION
Par Luis Bical­ho et Mat­thieu Wadoux dans Équipe des Virus Traducteurs

https://​www​.face​book​.com/​g​r​o​u​p​s​/​v​i​r​u​s​t​r​a​d​u​c​t​e​u​r​s​/​d​o​c​/​2​9​6​9​0​1​1​0​0​4​0​6​8​67/

PRIÈRE DE FAIRE VOS MODIFICATIONS EN GRAS !

Recen­se­ment de toutes les vidéos non trans­crites d’E­tienne Chouard ouvertes à la Transcription

========VIDÉOS
https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​m​u​l​t​i​m​e​d​i​a​/​E​_​C​h​o​u​a​r​d​_​B​r​u​x​e​l​l​e​s​_​2​5​_​m​a​r​s​_​2​0​1​2​-​p​o​u​r​-​u​n​-​p​e​u​p​l​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​t​_​m​o​n​t​a​g​e​_​r​e​d​u​i​t​_​1​5​_​m​i​n​.​mp3 Étienne Chouard @FR3 01/05/2005 http://​leweb2​ze​ro​.tv/​m​u​l​t​i​p​o​d​2​/​s​a​m​s​a​r​a​_​7​3​4​5​f​1​e​5​4​7​c​9​a9c

Etienne Chouard avant l’é­mis­sion tra­vaux publics France culture 23/04/2007
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​1​s​m​a​9​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​p​a​r​a​p​e​n​t​e​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​1​s​m​d​5​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​d​a​n​s​-​s​o​n​-​b​u​r​e​a​u​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​1​s​m​f​e​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​r​a​c​o​n​t​e​-​t​r​e​t​s​_​n​ews

Etienne @LCP 05/2007
Entier https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​m​l​m​l​5​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​d​e​s​-​d​e​p​u​t​e​s​-​l​c​p​_​n​ews

12 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x22dxw_etienne-chouard‑1–1‑le-tirage-au-so_news
2/2 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x22e4t_etienne-chouard‑2–2‑le-tirage-au-so_news

Etienne @Arles 19/12/2007
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​3​t​3​t​r​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​a​r​l​e​s​-​1​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​3​t​4​2​f​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​a​r​l​e​s​-​2​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​3​t​4​7​6​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​a​r​l​e​s​-​3​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​3​t​4​c​x​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​a​r​l​e​s​-​4​_​n​ews

Etienne @IEP Aix 15/01/2008
13 min https://​you​tu​.be/​h​F​o​F​o​k​H​B​_ms
ENTIER1/2 https://​you​tu​.be/​g​t​y​q​b​f​h​X​nIE
ENTIER2/2 https://​you​tu​.be/​u​m​Y​3​r​m​i​n​Q5o
ENTIER1/2 https://​you​tu​.be/​f​D​s​h​R​y​t​H​-hE
ENTIER 2/2 https://​you​tu​.be/​1​P​d​U​G​_​J​G​iDU
et 12 https://​you​tu​.be/​q​2​a​x​6​4​N​1​ZN8
2/2 https://​you​tu​.be/​P​W​E​P​a​4​k​W​UfM

Etienne @Nantes 21/03/2008
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​4​t​d​i​y​_​n​u​i​t​-​6​8​-​a​u​-​l​i​e​u​-​u​n​i​q​u​e​-​d​e​-​n​a​n​t​e​s​-​1​_​w​e​b​cam

Etienne @interview 12/2008
1 https://​you​tu​.be/​C​S​o​9​M​P​P​t​lJc
2 https://​you​tu​.be/​7​x​i​S​m​w​T​Z​YAE

Etienne @culture libre créa­tion moné­taire 1 l’argent dette mi-mars 2011
13:50 https://​you​tu​.be/​8​9​P​f​q​n​b​U​GdA
et https://​you​tu​.be/​G​d​S​r​v​1​M​0​5sE
et https://​you​tu​.be/​m​J​0​s​z​T​y​A​Tc0
et https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​h​i​y​m​d​_​e​n​t​r​e​t​i​e​n​-​a​v​e​c​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​1​-​l​-​a​r​g​e​n​t​-​d​e​t​t​e​_​n​ews

Etienne @culture libre créa­tion moné­taire 2 com­ment les banques ruinent les états (com­plot et impôt sur le reve­nu)
12 9min https://​you​tu​.be/​W​a​g​Y​K​Q​O​W​aus
et https://​you​tu​.be/​I​D​k​t​B​t​d​0​ai8
2/2 11min https://​you​tu​.be/​h​t​o​z​N​s​r​M​J6g
en une par­tie 21min https://​you​tu​.be/​9​c​m​K​0​4​y​b​RAg
et https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​h​j​g​r​q​_​e​n​t​r​e​t​i​e​n​-​a​v​e​c​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​2​-​c​o​m​p​l​o​t​-​e​t​-​i​m​p​o​t​_​n​ews

Etienne @culture libre Le sys­tème élec­tif
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​h​m​9​7​w​_​e​n​t​r​e​t​i​e​n​-​a​v​e​c​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​3​-​l​e​-​s​y​s​t​e​m​e​-​e​l​e​c​t​i​f​_​n​ews

Etienne @culture libre Le tirage au sort
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​h​m​9​9​c​_​e​n​t​r​e​t​i​e​n​-​a​v​e​c​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​4​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​_​n​ews

Etienne @Cannes Ago­raFM 16/03/2011
https://​you​tu​.be/​f​a​p​y​S​w​N​U​1LI
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​p​o​1​f​o​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​a​g​o​r​a​-​f​m​-​1​6​-​m​a​r​s​-​2​0​1​1​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​d​e​s​-​e​l​u​s​_​n​ews

Etienne @Nice 29/04/2011
entier : https://​you​tu​.be/​n​x​n​c​7​V​g​m​-cc MAIS PAS D’IMAGE
12 https://​you​tu​.be/​s​B​o​i​f​w​W​u​JLA
2/2 https://​you​tu​.be/​y​C​k​v​8​e​7​1​MNo
16 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xj8j5g_etienne-chouard-a-nice‑1–6_news
26 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xj8oi8_etienne-chouard-a-nice‑2–6_news
36 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xj8ohx_etienne-chouard-a-nice‑3–6_news
46 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xj8r4x_etienne-chouard-a-nice‑4–6_news
56 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xj8r4j_etienne-chouard-a-nice‑5–6_news
6/6 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xj8sw6_etienne-chouard-a-nice‑6–6_news

Etienne @Montpellier 22/09/2011 Amis du monde diplo­ma­tique
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlbjvc_etienne-chouard-conference-a-montpellier-22-septembre-2011–1‑4_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlbjbh_etienne-chouard-conference-montpellier-22-septembre-2011–2‑4_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlbjnc_etienne-chouard-conference-a-montpellier-22-septembre-2011–3‑4_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlbjri_etienne-chouard-conference-a-montpellier-22-septembre-2011–4‑4_news

Etienne @Chambéry Forum Social Local Tvnet­ci­toyenne 24/09/2011
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​a​o​d​y​_​l​e​-​f​o​r​u​m​-​s​o​c​i​a​l​-​l​o​c​a​l​-​i​n​v​i​t​e​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​_​n​ews
Inter­view https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​a​h​b​8​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​r​e​p​o​n​d​-​a​u​x​-​q​u​e​s​t​i​o​n​s​-​d​e​-​l​a​-​t​v​n​e​t​_​n​ews

Etienne @Metz 10/2011
16 https://​you​tu​.be/​x​Y​V​p​O​P​K​n​MFk
ou https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​m​b​c​v​h​_​1​-​6​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​m​e​t​z​-​o​c​t​2​0​1​1​-​e​n​j​e​u​x​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​t​i​o​n​_​n​ews
26 https://​you​tu​.be/​r​D​G​e​E​d​C​x​Xqc
ou https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​m​c​s​z​t​_​2​-​6​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​m​e​t​z​-​o​c​t​2​0​1​1​-​u​e​-​c​h​o​m​a​g​e​-​d​e​-​m​a​s​s​e​_​n​ews
36 https://​you​tu​.be/​w​h​f​Z​5​E​Z​6​R8Q
ou https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​m​f​k​3​h​_​3​-​6​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​m​e​t​z​-​o​c​t​2​0​1​1​-​u​e​-​d​i​c​t​a​t​u​r​e​-​d​e​s​-​m​a​r​c​h​e​s​-​f​i​n​a​n​c​i​e​r​s​-​s​a​b​o​r​d​a​g​e​-​m​o​n​e​t​a​i​r​e​_​n​ews
46 https://​you​tu​.be/​9​m​7​1​p​2​X​M​28c
ou https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​m​j​l​u​s​_​4​-​6​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​m​e​t​z​-​o​c​t​2​0​1​1​-​l​-​u​e​-​d​e​s​-​l​o​i​s​-​s​a​n​s​-​p​a​r​l​e​m​e​n​t​_​n​ews
56 https://​you​tu​.be/​J​k​p​T​F​k​b​R​764
ou https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​m​n​z​4​t​_​5​-​6​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​m​e​t​z​-​o​c​t​2​0​1​1​-​m​o​n​n​a​i​e​-​c​h​o​m​a​g​e​-​l​-​a​l​t​e​r​n​a​t​i​v​e​-​d​e​s​-​c​o​t​i​s​a​t​i​o​n​s​_​n​ews
6/6 https://​you​tu​.be/​b​f​r​I​v​H​L​J​088
ou https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​n​3​x​2​x​_​6​-​6​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​m​e​t​z​-​o​c​t​2​0​1​1​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​_​n​ews
OU en 2 par­ties
12 https://​you​tu​.be/​o​N​o​d​_​l​h​j​pOs
2/2 https://​you​tu​.be/​j​_​3​P​K​x​-​L​Fn4
OU
En 17 par­ties https://​you​tu​.be/​D​H​v​x​Z​l​x​G​IoM
OU

Etienne @Indignés 14/11/2011 05:15
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​5​k​a​q​_​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​r​e​n​c​o​n​t​r​e​-​a​v​e​c​-​l​e​s​-​i​n​d​i​g​n​e​s​-​l​e​-​1​4​-​j​u​i​l​l​e​t​_​w​e​b​cam
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​3​z​y​1​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​r​e​n​c​o​n​t​r​e​-​a​v​e​c​-​l​e​s​-​i​n​d​i​g​n​e​s​-​1​4​-​j​u​i​l​l​e​t​-​2​0​1​1​-​m​a​r​s​e​i​l​l​e​_​n​ews

Etienne @Namur 18/11/2011
112 https://​you​tu​.be/​Y​B​n​I​M​Z​-​T​ZL0
et le reste sur http://​www​.you​tube​.com/​u​s​e​r​/​d​o​d​u​d​i​d​ier

Etienne @Bruxelles 19/11/2011
13 : http://​bam​bu​ser​.com/​c​h​a​n​n​e​l​/​c​o​n​v​e​r​g​e​n​c​e​s​l​u​t​t​e​s​/​b​r​o​a​d​c​a​s​t​/​2​1​4​0​799
23 : http://​bam​bu​ser​.com/​c​h​a​n​n​e​l​/​c​o​n​v​e​r​g​e​n​c​e​s​l​u​t​t​e​s​/​b​r​o​a​d​c​a​s​t​/​2​1​4​0​896
3 : 3 http://​bam​bu​ser​.com/​c​h​a​n​n​e​l​/​c​o​n​v​e​r​g​e​n​c​e​s​l​u​t​t​e​s​/​b​r​o​a​d​c​a​s​t​/​2​1​4​1​110

Etienne @Extraits du film « la dette » 11/2011
https://​you​tu​.be/​e​F​u​M​8​F​h​a​OxM qui fabrique l’argent ?
https://​you​tu​.be/​X​V​b​k​O​k​W​V​xkc l’argent est-il rare ?
https://​you​tu​.be/​L​7​M​f​5​P​j​H​Etg La dette, un outil d’op­pres­sion
https://​you​tu​.be/​s​U​I​1​2​Z​_​4​_Jw Les causes du défi­cit bud­gé­taire sont-elles une aug­men­ta­tion des dépenses ?

L’E­tat et les banques, les desous d’un hold-up his­to­rique avec Myret Zaki 03/12/2011
http://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​f​e​a​t​u​r​e​=​p​l​a​y​e​r​_​d​e​t​a​i​l​p​a​g​e​&​l​i​s​t​=​U​U​u​q​K​w​v​l​B​m​W​_​Z​Z​o​D​b​V​8​9​L​B​O​A​&​v​=​T​L​j​q​2​5​_​a​y​W​M​#​t​=​2​1​05s

ver­sion enri­chie : http://​vimeo​.com/​3​7​7​0​4​340
et https://​you​tu​.be/​1​W​n​n​h​e​b​4​XPU
et en 10 par­ties https://​you​tu​.be/​J​J​s​J​9​O​a​R​qeM
et https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​n​8​3​c​j​_​l​-​e​t​a​t​-​e​t​-​l​e​s​-​b​a​n​q​u​e​s​-​l​e​s​-​d​e​s​s​o​u​s​-​d​-​u​n​-​h​o​l​d​-​u​p​-​h​i​s​t​o​r​i​q​u​e​-​p​a​r​-​m​y​r​e​t​-​z​a​k​i​-​e​t​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​_​n​ews

Etienne @attac à Gap 02/2012
https://youtu.be/CRV8ywOEQ‑o

Etienne @Paris 15/02/2012
12 https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​o​u​4​c​n​_​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​p​a​r​i​s​-​p​a​r​t​i​e​-​1​_​n​ews
2/2 https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​o​u​4​e​f​_​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​p​a​r​i​s​-​p​a​r​t​i​e​-​2​_​n​ews

Etienne @Rendez-vous Blanc 16/02/2012
https://​you​tu​.be/​C​u​P​F​d​F​5​N​z2k
et https://​you​tu​.be/​C​K​c​G​_​s​5​f​9CA
et https://​you​tu​.be/​H​F​T​x​7​a​Q​S​dOI
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​p​0​7​q​m​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​d​e​t​t​e​-​e​t​-​p​r​o​j​e​t​-​d​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​t​e​-​1​6​-​f​e​v​-​2​0​1​2​_​w​e​b​cam
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​o​z​7​e​h​_​i​n​t​e​r​v​i​e​w​-​d​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​d​e​t​t​e​-​p​u​b​l​i​q​u​e​-​e​t​-​l​e​-​p​r​o​j​e​t​-​d​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​t​e​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​p​2​p​t​w​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​d​e​t​t​e​-​p​u​b​l​i​q​u​e​-​e​t​-​l​e​-​p​r​o​j​e​t​-​d​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​t​e​_​n​ews
+ DISCUSSION https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​o​u​w​x​p​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​-​e​t​a​b​l​i​s​s​e​m​e​n​t​-​d​e​-​l​a​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​a​v​e​c​-​d​e​s​-​c​a​n​d​i​d​a​t​s​-​t​i​r​e​s​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​p​r​e​s​e​n​t​e​s​-​a​u​x​_​n​ews

Etienne @Six-Fours 20/02/11
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlsv92_etienne-chouard-conference-de-six-fours-partie‑1–2_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlttdk_etienne-chouard-conference-de-six-fours-partie‑2–2_news

-6 min https://​you​tu​.be/​F​x​z​Q​r​P​m​T​Clg ou https://​you​tu​.be/​h​t​o​z​N​s​r​M​J6g MODÈLE DU BUZZ-VIRUS 88000 vues et tous les dou­blons :
-https://​you​tu​.be/​m​K​j​L​F​-​4​j​N8o
-https://​you​tu​.be/​b​Z​_​H​Z​I​o​I​F8Y
-https://​you​tu​.be/​v​a​k​d​5​x​p​y​RHg
-https://​you​tu​.be/​y​d​A​i​s​D​L​n​vpQ
-https://​you​tu​.be/​x​y​t​J​p​t​i​-​y44
-https://​you​tu​.be/​K​D​4​N​8​e​p​C​Olg
-https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​g​d​z​l​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​-​a​r​n​a​q​u​e​-​d​e​-​l​-​i​m​p​o​t​-​s​u​r​-​l​e​-​r​e​v​e​n​u​_​n​ews (ori­gi­nale!!)
-https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​f​i​x​a​_​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​a​r​n​a​q​u​e​-​d​e​-​l​-​i​m​p​o​t​-​s​u​r​-​l​e​-​r​e​v​e​n​u​_​w​e​b​cam

Etienne @Toulouse 24/02/2012
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xp38zw_conference-debat-a-toulouse-etienne-chouard-24–02-2012-partie‑1–6_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xp3bbv_conference-toulouse-etienne-chouard-24–02-2012–2‑6_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xp3ccb_conference-toulouse-etienne-chouard-24–02-2012–3‑6_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xp3cvh_conference-toulouse-etienne-chouard-24–02-2012–4‑6_webcam
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xp3di4_conference-toulouse-etienne-chouard-24–02-2012–5‑6_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xp3edv_conference-toulouse-etienne-chouard-24–02-2012–6‑6_news

Etienne @Montpellier 14/03/12
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​h​8​Z​F​g​j​y​L​G​e​X​S​/​i​n​f​o​/​l​a​-​v​r​a​i​e​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​m​o​n​t​p​e​l​l​i​e​r​-​1​4​-​m​a​r​s​-​2​0​12/
et https://​you​tu​.be/​5​O​K​c​T​i​m​5​L8E
et https://​you​tu​.be/​J​p​4​h​j​1​K​e​2eU
et http://​vimeo​.com/​3​9​0​6​0​391

Etienne @Lyon 0312
Par­tie I https://​you​tu​.be/​e​E​n​A​T​S​y​X​L3g
Par­tie II https://​you​tu​.be/​O​G​Q​J​F​B​5​t​Q6g
Par­tie III https://​you​tu​.be/​4​5​u​x​E​C​d​-​mZ8
Par­tie IV https://​you​tu​.be/​f​S​Y​1​X​7​O​1​4CU
Par­tie V http://​you​tu​.be/​9​X​i​r​g​0​M​N​tS0
Par­tie VI http://​you​tu​.be/​9​z​C​p​k​6​j​E​V2w
Par­tie VII http://​you​tu​.be/​k​X​Z​Q​6​a​J​h​d7A

@Lyon 05/05/12
http://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​f​e​a​t​u​r​e​=​p​l​a​y​e​r​_​e​m​b​e​d​d​e​d​&​v​=​Q​4​t​N​M​e​2​5​VUQ#!

==========ENTRETIENS
Europe 15
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x3f4gl_europe‑1–5‑entretien-avec-etienne-c_news

Etienne sur la mon­dia­li­sa­tion
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​e​v​5​d​n​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​m​o​n​d​i​a​l​i​s​a​t​i​_​w​e​b​cam
Etienne @Thierry Crou­zet, en 3 par­ties ici : https://​you​tu​.be/​5​t​I​m​7​-​Q​g​HnU (2÷3)
12 https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​1​d​q​1​d​_​p​o​u​r​-​u​n​e​-​a​s​s​e​m​b​l​e​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​t​e​-​1​_​n​ews
2/2 https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​1​d​q​5​m​_​p​o​u​r​-​u​n​e​-​a​s​s​e​m​b​l​e​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​t​e​-​2​_​n​ews
12 https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​1​c​w​v​l​_​a​s​s​e​m​b​l​e​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​t​e​-​c​i​t​o​y​e​n​n​e​_​n​ews
2/2 https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​1​c​x​3​5​_​a​s​s​e​m​b​l​e​e​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​a​n​t​e​-​c​i​t​o​y​e​n​n​e​-​2​_​n​ews

Etienne @Sylvain Durain Hugo Cha­vez 28/09/11
22:18 https://youtu.be/i2eSQN–LP0
ET https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​d​t​z​g​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​h​u​g​o​-​c​h​a​v​e​z​-​l​a​-​s​o​t​t​i​s​e​-​d​e​s​-​a​n​t​i​f​a​s​_​w​e​b​cam
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​q​8​y​8​s​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​h​u​g​o​-​c​h​a​v​e​z​_​n​ews

Etienne @ Jean Robin (2:11:00)
https://​you​tu​.be/​6​L​B​4​6​2​z​-​j70
https://​you​tu​.be/​4​i​T​d​f​t​_​q​iGE
https://​you​tu​.be/​3​w​_​-​h​2​c​J​MRI
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​5​r​5​h​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​o​m​m​e​s​-​n​o​u​s​-​e​n​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​_​n​ews (ori­gi­nale!)

Etienne @ Yvan Blot
ver­sion courte : https://​vimeo​.com/​3​8​2​6​3​751
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​z​6​k​r​_​d​e​b​a​t​-​e​n​t​r​e​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​e​t​-​y​v​a​n​-​b​l​o​t​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​r​e​e​l​l​e​_​n​ews

@Opinews
1705
12 https://​you​tu​.be/​R​R​Q​0​G​j​6​9​lAM
2/2 https://​you​tu​.be/​4​h​y​y​r​p​w​h​fKo

==========RADIOS
Etienne @Le libre TS le 02/10/2011
courte sélec­tion https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​d​s​c​b​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​e​-​l​t​s​-​l​e​-​2​-​o​c​t​o​b​r​e​_​n​ews
13 https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlgfds_etienne-chouard-sur-le-libre-teamspeak‑1–3_news
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xlgg3a_etienne-chouard-sur-le-libre-teamspeak‑2–3_news

Etienne @Radio Cour­toi­sie le 15/11/2011
https://youtu.be/d‑x-TVs-CbE

Etienne @Radio Enghien le 14/02/2012
https://​you​tu​.be/​B​P​b​4​J​_​c​6​iF0

Etienne @Ici et main­te­nant 25/10/2011
http://​rim​save​.com/​?​p​=​1​238

Etienne @ ici et main­te­nant 04/05/2012
12
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​M​4​q​x​L​g​A​N​T​t​B​o​/​i​n​f​o​/​r​i​m​-​2​0​1​2​0​5​0​4​-​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​12/
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xqloxq_rim-2012–05-04-etienne-chouard‑1–2_news
2/2
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xqlp6w_rim-2012–05-04-etienne-chouard‑2–2_news

==========MONTAGES ou EXTRAITS non iden­ti­fiés
https://​you​tu​.be/​1​j​y​r​_​F​A​G​Fzk
https://​you​tu​.be/​Z​W​S​X​U​0​m​C​xT0 Radio ? Team­speak ? La fausse démo­cra­tie en 10 minutes (11min)
ET https://​you​tu​.be/​p​j​T​P​u​8​n​b​UL8
incon­nu : https://​you​tu​.be/​k​s​B​i​v​5​L​_​bJk
best of https://​you​tu​.be/​w​o​B​J​i​q​D​v​1w8
incon­nu : https://​you​tu​.be/​2​P​c​Q​k​f​2​j​zBM
Mon­tage : https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​q​2​g​v​c​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​r​e​p​r​e​n​o​n​s​-​l​e​-​p​o​u​v​o​i​r​-​a​u​x​-​l​o​b​b​y​s​-​f​i​n​a​n​c​i​e​r​s​_​w​e​b​cam
Radio : https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​d​d​p​g​s​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​t​r​e​-​l​e​-​t​r​a​i​t​e​-​d​e​_​n​ews

Le mes­sage : REMIX amé­lio­ré : https://​you​tu​.be/​6​y​V​F​1​e​y​Z​lUU

extrait com­plot 02:23
https://​vimeo​.com/​2​6​6​3​0​151
et https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​o​l​5​2​9​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​t​h​e​o​r​i​e​-​d​u​-​c​o​m​p​l​o​t​_​w​e​b​c​a​m​?​s​e​a​r​c​h​_​a​l​g​o=1
=>et 15:55
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​5​z​i​q​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​s​-​g​r​o​s​-​m​a​l​i​n​s​-​d​e​-​l​a​-​t​h​e​o​r​i​e​-​d​u​-​c​o​m​p​l​o​t​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​5​v​d​d​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​s​-​g​r​o​s​-​m​a​l​i​n​s​-​d​e​-​l​a​-​t​h​e​o​r​i​e​-​d​u​-​c​o​m​p​l​o​t​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​5​x​n​f​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​s​-​g​r​o​s​-​m​a​l​i​n​s​-​d​e​-​l​a​-​t​h​e​o​r​i​e​-​d​u​-​c​o​m​p​l​o​t​_​n​ews
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​6​1​0​h​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​s​-​g​r​o​s​-​m​a​l​i​n​s​-​d​e​-​l​a​-​t​h​e​o​r​i​e​-​d​u​-​c​o​m​p​l​o​t​_​n​ews

mon­tage best of http://​www​.you​tube​.com/​w​a​t​c​h​?​f​e​a​t​u​r​e​=​p​l​a​y​e​r​_​e​m​b​e​d​d​e​d​&​v​=​3​u​u​_​N​d​s​P​oHQ

vidéos ouvertes à la Tra­duc­tion
=>Etienne 10 rai­sons de sor­tir de l’UE 13
http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​1​1​a​0​a​9​4​2​-​4​d​0​0​-​4​6​0​e​-​8​2​3​2​-​d​9​e​d​c​c​c​9​1​027
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xiegy7_etienne-chouard-sortir-de-l-ue-partie‑1–3_news
23
http://dotsub.com/view/a829af0b-4317–4819-9110–1054146956e3
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xieks6_etienne-chouard-sortir-de-l-ue-partie‑2–3_news
3/3
http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​b​8​7​0​f​f​f​3​-​2​4​9​d​-​4​c​2​0​-​9​4​2​f​-​f​0​e​4​1​6​6​2​c​1ff
https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xigon8_etienne-chouard-sortir-de-l-ue‑3–3_news

=>Etienne @Sylvain Durain(vol moné­taire-consti­tu­tion) 28/09/2011
12 (15:11) http://dotsub.com/view/61b1428e-9917–44c5-b495-8e830aed445d
2/2 (15:00) http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​1​2​6​3​c​f​f​7​-​2​d​1​5​-​4​6​4​1​-​b​b​5​9​-​9​c​a​0​6​a​a​6​b​511
ET EN ENTIER (30:11) https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​d​n​k​o​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​-​p​r​o​b​l​e​m​e​-​d​u​-​v​o​l​-​m​o​n​e​t​a​i​r​e​-​e​t​-​d​e​-​l​a​-​c​o​n​s​t​i​t​u​t​i​o​n​_​w​e​b​cam

=>Etienne @Sylvain Durain (abus lan­gage nov­langue) http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​0​c​f​e​b​7​c​9​-​a​c​0​f​-​4​b​4​d​-​9​e​3​9​-​5​d​e​d​6​b​1​c​c​901
ET https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​d​j​w​2​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​e​s​-​a​b​u​s​-​d​e​-​l​a​n​g​a​g​e​-​e​t​-​l​a​-​n​o​v​l​a​n​g​u​e​_​w​e​b​cam

=>Etienne @SylvainDurain (dette Etat pro­vi­dence)
http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​2​4​9​d​e​4​3​e​-​b​d​8​b​-​4​d​9​1​-​9​b​8​7​-​8​c​3​d​4​6​5​e​c​395
ET https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​d​q​t​y​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​a​-​d​e​t​t​e​-​e​t​-​l​a​-​f​i​n​-​d​e​-​l​-​e​t​a​t​-​p​r​o​v​i​d​e​n​c​e​_​w​e​b​cam

=>Etienne @ Syl­vain Durain (liber­té d’ex­pres­sion vraie)
Dot­sub ENG 100%
http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​5​e​5​8​8​8​a​5​-​8​7​f​d​-​4​e​7​0​-​b​b​e​5​-​2​4​0​9​6​a​5​5​b​1ed
ET https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​d​d​z​l​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​a​-​l​i​b​e​r​t​e​-​d​-​e​x​p​r​e​s​s​i​o​n​-​l​a​-​v​r​a​i​e​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​t​i​e​-​l​a​-​c​u​l​t​u​r​e​_​w​e​b​cam

Etienne @Lyon Par­tie I
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​S​E​v​2​j​t​y​d​Y​o​A​X​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​p​a​r​t​i​e​-​i​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​d​e​-​l​y​o​n​-​m​a​r​s​-​2​0​12/
https://​you​tu​.be/​e​E​n​A​T​S​y​X​L3g

Etienne @Marseille3 23/04/11
DL ITA 90% POR 10%
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​y​z​h​h​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​c​o​m​m​e​-​b​o​m​b​e​-​p​o​l​i​t​i​q​u​e​m​e​n​t​-​d​u​r​a​b​l​e​-​c​o​n​t​r​e​-​l​-​o​l​i​g​a​r​c​h​i​e​_​n​ews

@TEDX
https://​you​tu​.be/​o​N​5​t​d​M​S​X​WV8
ESP, POR, Sué­dois en cours
Dot­sub http://dotsub.com/view/af07146a-1713–4989-a66a-a2c835efdd8a
Ama­ra http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​G​H​n​N​a​j​2​1​B​E​V​m​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​h​e​r​c​h​e​u​r​-​e​n​-​c​a​u​s​e​-​d​e​s​-​c​a​u​s​e​s​-​t​e​d​x​r​e​p​u​b​l​i​q​u​e​s​q​u​a​re/

Pro­jets clos

Etienne @Six-fours 20/02/2011
Dotsub(FR+ENG+ESP+GER)
http://​dot​sub​.com/​v​i​e​w​/​0​7​8​a​6​7​f​4​-​6​5​5​d​-​4​1​0​d​-​8​d​2​0​-​9​5​2​d​f​2​5​5​9​f8a
6 min https://​you​tu​.be/​F​x​z​Q​r​P​m​T​Clg ou https://​you​tu​.be/​h​t​o​z​N​s​r​M​J6g MODÈLE DU BUZZ-VIRUS 88000 vues et tous les dou­blons : ‑https://​you​tu​.be/​m​K​j​L​F​-​4​j​N8o @
-https://​you​tu​.be/​b​Z​_​H​Z​I​o​I​F8Y @
-https://​you​tu​.be/​v​a​k​d​5​x​p​y​RHg @
-https://​you​tu​.be/​y​d​A​i​s​D​L​n​vpQ @
-https://​you​tu​.be/​x​y​t​J​p​t​i​-​y44 pas contac­té
-https://​you​tu​.be/​K​D​4​N​8​e​p​C​Olg
-https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​l​g​d​z​l​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​l​-​a​r​n​a​q​u​e​-​d​e​-​l​-​i​m​p​o​t​-​s​u​r​-​l​e​-​r​e​v​e​n​u​_​n​ews (ori­gi­nale!!)
-https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​f​i​x​a​_​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​a​r​n​a​q​u​e​-​d​e​-​l​-​i​m​p​o​t​-​s​u​r​-​l​e​-​r​e​v​e​n​u​_​w​e​b​cam

@Marseille1 23/04/11 DL (FR+ENG) https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​h​t​u​k​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​s​u​r​-​l​a​-​c​r​e​a​t​i​o​n​-​m​o​n​e​t​a​i​r​e​-​m​a​r​s​e​i​l​l​e​_​n​ews

@Marseille2 23/04/11
DL(FR+POR) https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​j​d​u​w​v​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​s​u​r​-​l​-​i​n​f​l​a​t​i​o​n​_​n​ews

@Marseille3 23/04/11
DL(ENG+GER+ESP) en cours (ITA+PO
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​i​y​z​h​h​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​o​n​f​e​r​e​n​c​e​-​l​e​-​t​i​r​a​g​e​-​a​u​-​s​o​r​t​-​c​o​m​m​e​-​b​o​m​b​e​-​p​o​l​i​t​i​q​u​e​m​e​n​t​-​d​u​r​a​b​l​e​-​c​o​n​t​r​e​-​l​-​o​l​i​g​a​r​c​h​i​e​_​n​ews

@TEDX https://​you​tu​.be/​o​N​5​t​d​M​S​X​WV8
Dot­sub (FR, ENG)
http://dotsub.com/view/af07146a-1713–4989-a66a-a2c835efdd8a
Ama­ra (Fr, ENG)
http://​www​.uni​ver​sal​sub​titles​.org/​f​r​/​v​i​d​e​o​s​/​G​H​n​N​a​j​2​1​B​E​V​m​/​i​n​f​o​/​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​h​e​r​c​h​e​u​r​-​e​n​-​c​a​u​s​e​-​d​e​s​-​c​a​u​s​e​s​-​t​e​d​x​r​e​p​u​b​l​i​q​u​e​s​q​u​a​re/

=======DOUBLONS
https://​you​tu​.be/​f​E​w​C​J​E​b​J​9Pc 10 rai­sons
https://​you​tu​.be/​M​2​A​D​w​7​h​Z​iT0 Marseille3
https://​you​tu​.be/​E​V​6​0​a​q​B​D​6H4 Marseille3
https://​you​tu​.be/​v​k​W​7​G​S​W​x​WK0 TedX
https://​you​tu​.be/​s​M​0​C​a​f​j​1​oy0 TedX
https://​vimeo​.com/​4​0​9​4​4​205 TedX
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​q​8​1​m​2​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​h​e​r​c​h​e​u​r​-​e​n​-​c​a​u​s​e​-​d​e​s​-​c​a​u​s​e​s​_​n​ews TedX
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​q​6​w​7​n​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​c​h​e​r​c​h​e​u​r​-​e​n​-​c​a​u​s​e​-​d​e​s​-​c​a​u​s​e​s​_​w​e​b​cam TedX
https://​you​tu​.be/​R​B​R​X​2​z​U​9​KkE 10 rai­sons de sor­tir de l’UE
https://​you​tu​.be/​k​C​V​2​O​G​F​7​gI4 10 rai­sons
https://​you​tu​.be/​R​S​k​u​u​l​d​A​RHw 10 rai­sons
https://​www​.dai​ly​mo​tion​.com/​v​i​d​e​o​/​x​k​k​y​x​c​_​e​t​i​e​n​n​e​-​c​h​o​u​a​r​d​-​1​0​-​r​a​i​s​o​n​s​-​d​e​-​s​o​r​t​i​r​-​d​e​-​l​-​u​n​i​o​n​-​e​u​r​o​p​e​e​n​n​e​_​n​ews 10 rai­sons
https://​you​tu​.be/​L​t​I​o​k​3​0​_​bDw Marseille1
https://​you​tu​.be/​D​U​-​z​F​A​_​4​Z6s Marseille1
==========VIDEOS ETRANGERES
https://​you​tu​.be/​5​h​m​5​j​_​l​8​uhU Mar­seille 3
https://​you​tu​.be/​b​j​h​F​b​_​-​w​BI0 Marseille3
https://​you​tu​.be/​3​G​H​Z​6​q​9​1​61c Marseille3

https://​you​tu​.be/​X​5​u​v​a​f​A​h​mCM TEDx Russe
https://​you​tu​.be/​O​l​_​R​d​j​T​h​yAY par­tie 2
https://​you​tu​.be/​5​_​B​e​f​1​5​m​ELk Bul­gare??

https://​you​tu​.be/​G​e​e​O​I​l​v​b​RpQ russe ?
https://​you​tu​.be/​t​u​8​A​D​r​d​e​i4s

:

Quel bou­lot !!!!

Mer­ci à tous les gen­tis virus (GV),
virus démo­cra­tiques qui essaient de col­ler la crève au monstre oli­gar­chique (trop fort pour nous, sans cela)
en le pri­vant de sa potion magique : le faux »suf­frage uni­ver­sel« qui a ren­du pos­sible (et qui ver­rouille encore) le capi­ta­lisme en don­nant 100% des pou­voirs aux plus riches (1%).

IL N’Y A PAS DE DÉMOCRATIE DIGNE DE CE NOM SANS TIRAGE AU SORT.

Bien ami­ca­le­ment.

Étienne.

Der­nière mise à jour de cette page : 18 octobre 2014.

Mer­ci à tous !!!

:o)  

 

 

 

No Democracy without Sortition => the cause of the causes of our powerlessness is that we let the political professionals draw up and modify the Constitution

http://​etienne​.chouard​.free​.fr/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​f​o​r​u​m​/​i​n​d​e​x​.​p​h​p​?​2​0​1​2​/​1​1​/​0​1​/​2​6​9​-​n​o​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​c​y​-​w​i​t​h​o​u​t​-​s​o​r​t​i​t​i​o​n​-​t​h​e​-​c​a​u​s​e​-​o​f​-​t​h​e​-​c​a​u​s​e​s​-​o​f​-​o​u​r​-​p​o​w​e​r​l​e​s​s​n​e​s​s​-is

Par Étienne, jeu­di 1 novembre 2012 à 00:42 - Signes de vie d’une Europe des citoyens

No Demo­cra­cy without Sor­ti­tion :
the cause of the causes of our power­less­ness
is that we let the poli­ti­cal pro­fes­sio­nals draw up
and modi­fy the Constitution

First, here is the text (com­plete) of the 15 minutes syn­the­sis
that I had pre­pa­red for the TEDx confe­rence (on March 22nd, 2012 in Paris) :

L’homme qui parle anglais ci-des­sus s’ap­pelle Michael. Il habite non loin de chez moi. Il m’aide énor­mé­ment à m’ex­pri­mer en anglais, à l’é­crit et à l’o­ral, ici et ailleurs (et donc à semer nos graines d’i­dées plus loin, à tra­vers le monde). Je dois lui dire ma pro­fonde recon­nais­sance. Quand il parle anglais, c’est de la musique. Il est le plus gen­til des hommes. Mer­ci Michael.

I also pre­pa­red my contri­bu­tion for the Sor­ti­tion Work­shop in Tri­ni­ty Col­lege of Dublin (Ire­land, 12 Octo­ber 2012):

Étienne Chouard
Mar­seille, France
https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​pe/

Lot­te­ry work­shop at Tri­ni­ty Col­lege of Dublin
11–12 Octo­ber 2012
http://​www​.tcd​.ie/​p​o​l​i​c​y​-​i​n​s​t​i​t​u​t​e​/​e​v​e​n​t​s​/​L​o​t​t​e​r​y​_​w​o​r​k​s​h​o​p​_​O​c​t​1​2​.​php

.

This work­shop, which was about Sor­ti­tion as a demo­cra­tic Ins­ti­tu­tion, was based on an ini­tial text by Peter stone, Gil Delan­noi and Oli­ver Dow­len : http://​www​.tcd​.ie/​p​o​l​i​c​y​-​i​n​s​t​i​t​u​t​e​/​e​v​e​n​t​s​/​L​o​t​t​e​r​y​_​w​o​r​k​s​h​o​p​_​O​c​t​1​2​.​php

In order to be able to make an oral com­men­ta­ry on the ini­tial text, I had to pre­pare the fol­lo­wing writ­ten docu­ment. I hope that you find it useful.

Thank you for your kind invi­ta­tion and for your attention.

Étienne Chouard,
31 Octo­ber 2012,
https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​ope

PS : I don’t know if you wan­ted this trans­la­ted but it is some­thing I had alrea­dy corrected.

 

Com­ments on Peter Stone’s report (Dublin)

On Part 1
(bene­fits of dra­wing by lots in politics)

I have, myself, drawn up a list which recaps on the vices of elec­tions and the vir­tues of sor­ti­tion (Cf. Annexes). I have found most of these vir­tues in your report, and I shall the­re­fore not insist on our nume­rous points of agreement.

I should never­the­less like to high­light some impor­tant, but fre­quent­ly neglec­ted points :

  1. The equa­li­zing vir­tue of sor­ti­tion (the rulers of today are the ruled over of tomor­row) must be defen­ded not only for itself but for its main conse­quence i.e. rulers (pro­du­cers of the law) who know that they will soon become ruled over (sub­ject to the laws in ques­tion) will natu­ral­ly and mecha­ni­cal­ly take deci­sions that are in accor­dance with the public inter­est (because they know that they will be per­so­nal­ly impac­ted), whe­reas elec­tions, on the contra­ry, incite elec­ted repre­sen­ta­tives to draw up laws that are all the more severe and contra­ry to the public inter­est since they know that they them­selves will be shel­te­red from them (this always hap­pens when they are the people who draw up the constitution).
  2. This same vir­tue works the other way around (the ruled over of today will be the rulers of tomor­row) and has ano­ther impor­tant and peda­go­gi­cal knock-on effect that is well expres­sed by de Tocqueville :

« The jury is above all a poli­ti­cal institution.

[…]

By the jury I mean a cer­tain num­ber of citi­zens drawn by lot, and inves­ted with a tem­po­ra­ry right of judging.

[…]

The jury, and more espe­cial­ly the jury in civil cases, serves to com­mu­ni­cate the spi­rit of the judges to the minds of all the citi­zens ; and this spi­rit, with the habits which attend it, is the soun­dest pre­pa­ra­tion for a free people.

It imbues all classes with a res­pect for the thing jud­ged, and with the notion of right. If these two ele­ments be remo­ved, the love of inde­pen­dence is redu­ced to a mere des­truc­tive passion.

It teaches men to prac­tice equi­ty, eve­ry man learns to judge his neigh­bor as he would him­self be judged.

[…]

The jury teaches eve­ry man not to recoil before the res­pon­si­bi­li­ty of his own actions, and impresses him with that man­ly confi­dence without which poli­ti­cal vir­tue can­not exist.

It invests each citi­zen with a kind of magis­tra­cy, it makes them all feel the duties which they are bound to discharge towards socie­ty, and the part which they take in the Govern­ment. By obli­ging men to turn their atten­tion to affairs which are not exclu­si­ve­ly their own, it rubs off that indi­vi­dual ego­tism which is the rust of society.

The jury contri­butes most power­ful­ly to form the judg­ment and to increase the natu­ral intel­li­gence of a people, and this is, in my opi­nion, its grea­test advan­tage. It may be regar­ded as a gra­tui­tous public school ever open, in which eve­ry juror learns to exer­cise his rights, enters into dai­ly com­mu­ni­ca­tion with the most lear­ned and enligh­te­ned mem­bers of the upper classes, and becomes prac­ti­cal­ly acquain­ted with the laws of his coun­try, which are brought within the reach of his capa­ci­ty by the efforts of the bar, the advice of the judge, and even by the pas­sions of the parties.

[…]

I do not know whe­ther the jury is use­ful to those who are in liti­ga­tion ; but I am cer­tain it is high­ly bene­fi­cial to those who decide the liti­ga­tion ; and I look upon it as one of the most effi­ca­cious means for the edu­ca­tion of the people which socie­ty can employ.

What I have hither­to said applies to all nations »

(Source : Tocqueville.)

  1. The second vir­tue that we should highlight :

Sor­ti­tion (just like real demo­cra­cy) is based on a heal­thy and construc­tive MISTRUST of any power : it does NOT assume the vir­tue of the people who are desi­gna­ted (unlike elec­tion), and this power­ful fea­ture of REALISM explains the mul­ti­tude of fini­cky and per­ma­nent CONTROLS that neces­sa­ri­ly go with sortition.

This makes the dra­wing by lots a much safer pro­ce­dure for those who are being gover­ned, and by defi­ni­tion, a real (sus­tai­nable) gua­ran­tee against the abuse of power.

It should also be noted that this fact makes sor­ti­tion (with its per­ma­nent controls) a much bet­ter pro­ce­dure for assi­gning posi­tions in large poli­ti­cal communities.

  1. If I only had 5 minutes to talk about the poli­ti­cal bene­fits of sor­ti­tion, I would par­ti­cu­lar­ly insist on a very stri­king (and total­ly misun­ders­tood) fea­ture, if com­pa­red to elections :

In Athens, during the 200 years of sor­ti­tion, the RICH people NEVER conduc­ted the affairs (rich people were never nume­rous enough to take deci­sions at the Assem­bly), while, during the 200 years of elec­tions, the rich have ALWAYS been the ones who govern (rich people can easi­ly help their ser­vants to cap­ture the poli­ti­cal power by finan­cing their elec­to­ral cam­pai­gns ; and this plu­to­cra­tic regime was kind­ly cal­led « capi­ta­lism »), as if the elec­tion always gave power to the rich.

Please, note this.

I believe this sys­te­mic delin­king (uncou­pling) of eco­no­mic power and poli­ti­cal power (by put­ting poli­ti­cal power out of reach of the rich) is the most impor­tant effect of the dra­wing by lots and the inse­pa­rable cha­rac­te­ris­tic of a demo­cra­cy wor­thy of the name.

On part 2
(HOW to inte­grate dra­wing by lot in the institutions)

I see seve­ral ways of using sor­ti­tion in poli­tics, and it is impor­tant to dis­tin­guish these dif­ferent uses to avoid confu­sion, because the argu­ments dif­fer from one case to another :

  1. Full direct demo­cra­cy, like the Athe­nian one :repre­sen­ta­tives cho­sen by dra­wing by lots are wea­ke­ned, so that repre­sen­ta­tives remain ser­vants and can never become mas­ters.Sor­ti­tion is then used by the people to pro­tect their own power at the assem­bly against their representatives.
  2. Repre­sen­ta­tive govern­ment impro­ved by inte­gra­ting citi­zens in the exer­cise of power :
  • In addi­tion to the House of Par­ties, com­po­sed of pro­fes­sio­nal repre­sen­ta­tives like today,a second Legis­la­tive Cham­ber could be cho­sen at ran­dom : it would be cal­led the « House of Citi­zens’=> com­po­sed of ama­teurs, it would reflect the nation.
  • All esta­bli­shed bodies could be pla­ced under the dai­ly super­vi­sion ofseve­ral Control Cham­bers, all drawn by lot.
  • A« House of Refe­ren­dum », cho­sen at ran­dom, could exa­mine all sug­ges­tions, even the indi­vi­dual ones, to choose those to be sub­mit­ted to (the very essen­tial) popu­lar ini­tia­tive referendum.
  1. But (by far) the most impor­tant use of dra­wing by lot is that of the Consti­tuent Assem­bly :indeed, wha­te­ver the moda­li­ty cho­sen to inte­grate sor­ti­tion in our ins­ti­tu­tions (dra­wing by lot all offi­cials so that all citi­zens can be legis­la­tors, dra­wing by lot of one of the two legis­la­tive cham­bers, dra­wing by lot of the dif­ferent Control Cham­bers…),NONE of these reforms, abso­lu­te­ly none, will ever be imple­men­ted by an elec­ted Consti­tuent Assem­bly. EVER !

Any Consti­tuent Assem­bly elec­ted among pro­fes­sio­nal poli­ti­cians will always – by defi­ni­tion and inevi­ta­bly be poi­so­ned by the most serious conflicts of interest.

Elec­ted offi­cials will never be able to ins­ti­tute (against them­selves) the controls that we all need.

It is the­re­fore of the utmost impor­tance (and the moti­va­tion of my trip here is to come and talk about it), it is com­ple­te­ly stra­te­gic, to place the dra­wing by lots of the Consti­tuent Assem­bly at the fore­front of our priorities.

If not, we are condem­ned to ste­rile chat­ter of a people ren­de­red power­less by a false consti­tu­tion, because we do not attack the pro­blem at its root, because we ges­ti­cu­late about conse­quences without iden­ti­fying the cause of causes, while poli­ti­cians conti­nue to esta­blish the finest wor­kings of the plu­to­cra­cy which gua­ran­tees their anti­so­cial privilege.

Thank you for your kind invi­ta­tion and for your attention.

Étienne Chouard

https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​ope

 

Annexes

The elec­tion is THE CAUSE which allows mer­chants to colo­nize the City

Many of us com­plain about the colo­ni­za­tion of our ima­gi­na­tion by mer­chants (that is to say, ulti­ma­te­ly, by the ban­kers, that are always beco­ming the richest mer­chants): gra­dual­ly, mer­chants suc­ceed in making us believe that yarn that « eve­ry­thing that has a price has a value and that eve­ry­thing that has no price has no value » while, on the contra­ry, all that real­ly mat­ters (love, quie­tude, hap­pi­ness, peace, pas­sion, ful­fillment, joy, honour …) does not have a price, and what has a price often has lit­tle or no real value.

But the nuclear heart of this colo­ni­za­tion of our ima­gi­na­tion (and of our ins­ti­tu­tions) by mer­chants, is the elec­tion because it is the elec­tion that allows the rich mer­chants to help the elec­ted to be elec­ted in order to make the elec­ted DEPENDENT on the rich, INDEBTED so to speak.

Some­how, ELECTION enables the gene­ra­li­za­tion in the poli­ti­cal are­na SERVITUDE BY DEBT, deve­lo­ped by the money mer­chants to force all people to work for them.

Through the poli­ti­cal mecha­nism of the elec­tion, the mer­chants place their mer­chant priests throu­ghout the social body in a posi­tion to influence public choices to their advantage.

THE WEAK LINK of this colo­ni­za­tion of poli­tics by eco­no­mics, IS THE ELECTION !

And this Achilles’ heel of the rich is within the reach of the poor, but only if the poor stop being so proud, thin­king stu­pid­ly (and denial of all the contra­ry facts that prove their error) that their col­lec­tive will (though easi­ly decei­ved) is bet­ter than chance (yet incor­rup­tible) in the desi­gna­tion of poli­ti­cal ser­vants of the city.

It would be easy and judi­cious to replace elec­tion by chance, the usual game­mas­ter in nature, and —expe­rience proves— always res­pect­ful of equi­li­brium and the sur­vi­val of all.

THINGS ARE WELL DONE BY CHANCE, we for­get it because of our pre­ten­tious­ness : chance is a pro­ba­bi­li­ty that is not sub­ject to our control (itself vul­ne­rable to bull­shit, easy to deceive); CHANCE IS INCORRUPTIBLE.

The ELECTION, IDEALISM sup­po­sing TRUST (before aban­do­ning the idea of governing)-vs- SORTITION, REALISM sup­po­sing MISTRUST (before orga­ni­zing to govern)

It is impor­tant to unders­tand a para­dox (or a contra­dic­tion): contra­ry to appea­rances, the elec­tion is based on trust, while the sor­ti­tion is based on mis­trust. The elec­tion is based on an ideal (in my opi­nion per­fect­ly inac­ces­sible and mas­king a fraud) that an elec­ted offi­cial would be righ­teous by the mere fact of being elec­ted and would remain dura­bly due to the same elec­tion (also inten­ded to enable a sanc­tion by non-ree­lec­tion), the people being sup­po­sed to be able to choose their mas­ters… which is extra­va­gant, a true myth, com­ple­te­ly unrealistic.

Whe­reas, on the contra­ry, the Athe­nians, very prag­ma­tic, knew them­selves well, dis­trus­ted each other and built ins­ti­tu­tions ack­now­led­ging the rea­li­ty of their imper­fec­tions and based on dis­trust, on per­ma­nent control of the repre­sen­ta­tives who were the mas­ters of nobo­dy ; ins­ti­tu­tions relying on the sta­ging of conflicts, on contra­dic­to­ry argu­ments, during public debates, in which no deci­sion could be taken without all having been for­ced to lis­ten and publi­cly refute the argu­ments of the worst opponents.

The elec­tion is a poli­ti­cal abdi­ca­tion, renun­cia­tion, a ges­ture of trust before consen­ting to obey for seve­ral years ; it is a poli­ti­cal orga­ni­za­tion that only leaves to people the hope­less right to choose their masters.

Whe­reas sor­ti­tion is at the heart of a poli­ti­cal orga­ni­za­tion which embo­dies a desire of all men to keep poli­ti­cal power and to appoint only ser­vile exe­cu­tors to represent them.

It must not be for­got­ten that in a demo­cra­cy, it is not the people who have been drawn by lot that are in power (they used to be cal­led « magis­trates »): it is the Assem­bly of People in body that exer­cises full poli­ti­cal power. The people drawn by lots only serve to per­form the tasks that the Assem­bly can not per­form itself : e.g., the pre­pa­ra­tion and publi­ca­tion of the agen­da, the exe­cu­tion of the deci­sions of the Assem­bly, the phy­si­cal orga­ni­za­tion of the draw, the accoun­ta­bi­li­ty, etc.

7 vices of the elec­tion and 11 vir­tues of sor­ti­tion, let’s recap :

7 VICES OF THE ELECTION :

  1. The elec­tion leads to lying : first to come to power and second­ly to keep it, because can­di­dates can not be elec­ted, and re-elec­ted, unless their image is good : it mecha­ni­cal­ly leads to lying, about the future and the past.
  2. Elec­tion leads to cor­rup­tion : “spon­so­red” poli­ti­cians must inevi­ta­bly « return the favor » to their spon­sors, those who have finan­ced their elec­tion cam­pai­gn : so, cor­rup­tion is inevi­table, by the very exis­tence of the cam­pai­gn, the cost of which is inac­ces­sible to the can­di­date alone. The sys­tem of elec­tion the­re­fore allows, and even imposes, the cor­rup­tion of poli­ti­cians (which pro­ba­bly suits some weal­thy eco­no­mic actors).

Thanks to the prin­ciple of rui­nous cam­pai­gns, our repre­sen­ta­tives are for sale (and our free­doms along with it).

  1. The elec­tion encou­rages the grou­ping into leagues and sub­mits poli­ti­cal action to clans and espe­cial­ly to their lea­ders, with its pro­ces­sion of tur­pi­tudes lin­ked to the logic of hie­rar­chi­cal orga­ni­za­tions and the ultra prio­ri­ty (cri­ti­cal) the quest for power.

Poli­ti­cal par­ties impose their can­di­dates, which makes our choices arti­fi­cial. Because of the par­ti­ci­pa­tion of poli­ti­cal groups in elec­to­ral com­pe­ti­tion (unfair com­pe­ti­tion), the elec­tion deprives the most iso­la­ted indi­vi­duals of any chance to par­ti­ci­pate in govern­ment of the City and this fos­ters the lack of poli­ti­cal inter­est (or even rejec­tion) by the citizens.

  1. The elec­tion dele­gates… and the­re­fore exempts (keep away) citi­zens from dai­ly poli­ti­cal acti­vi­ty and pro­motes the for­ma­tion of castes of elec­ted people, poli­ti­cal pro­fes­sio­nals for life, moving away from their consti­tuents to final­ly no lon­ger represent anyone but them­selves, tur­ning the pro­tec­tion pro­mi­sed by the elec­tion into a poli­ti­cal muzzle.
  2. The elec­tion only ensures the legi­ti­ma­cy of elec­ted people without any gua­ran­tee of dis­tri­bu­tive jus­tice in the dis­tri­bu­tion of charges : an Assem­bly of offi­cials and doc­tors can not unders­tand the com­mon good as would an Assem­bly drawn by lot.

An elec­ted Assem­bly is never representative.

  1. Para­doxi­cal­ly, the elec­tion stifles resis­tance against the abuse of power : it reduces our pre­cious free­dom of speech to an epi­so­dic vote eve­ry five years, vote per­ver­ted by a fake bipar­tism offe­ring only false choices. The advice of « use­ful vote » is a poli­ti­cal gag.
  2. The elec­tion selects by defi­ni­tion those who seem « the best », some citi­zen dee­med to be super­ior to the voters, and the­re­by for­feits the prin­ciple of equa­li­ty (yet pos­ted eve­ryw­here, fal­se­ly): by construc­tion, the elec­tion desi­gnates more lea­ders who look for power (domi­na­tors) ins­tead of repre­sen­ta­tives who accept power (media­tors, lis­te­ning and ser­ving the citizens).

The elec­tion is dee­ply aris­to­cra­tic, not demo­cra­tic at all. The term « demo­cra­tic elec­tion » is an oxy­mo­ron (a blend of contra­dic­to­ry words).

A major disad­van­tage of this elite, it is this fee­ling of power that deve­lops in the elec­ted repre­sen­ta­tives to the point where they final­ly take any liberties.

IN FACT, for 200 years (since the ear­ly 19th cen­tu­ry), the elec­tion has always given poli­ti­cal power to the rich and only to them, never to the others : the elec­tion of poli­ti­cal repre­sen­ta­tives enables COUPLING poli­ti­cal power and eco­no­mic power, in a las­ting man­ner, gra­dual­ly crea­ting irres­pon­sible and unac­coun­table mons­ters wri­ting the laws for them­selves and appro­pria­ting the mono­po­ly of public power for pri­vate gain.

11 VIRTUES OF SORTITION :

  1. The pro­ce­dure of the draw is fair and impar­tial : it ensures dis­tri­bu­tive jus­tice (logi­cal conse­quence of the prin­ciple of poli­ti­cal equa­li­ty sta­ted as cen­tral goal of democracy).
  2. The draw pre­vents cor­rup­tion (it even deters cor­rup­ters : it is impos­sible and unne­ces­sa­ry to cheat, it avoids intrigues): lea­ving no room for any will, nei­ther for the one nor the other, it gives no chance to chea­ting or mani­pu­la­tion of of people’s will.
  3. The draw never creates ran­cour : no vani­ty to have been cho­sen, no resent­ment at not having been cho­sen : it has vir­tues to paci­fy the City, systemically.
  4. All par­ti­ci­pants, repre­sen­ta­tives and repre­sen­ted are real­ly made equal.
  5. Chance, repro­du­cing rare­ly twice the same choice, natu­ral­ly leads to the rota­tion of res­pon­si­bi­li­ties and mecha­ni­cal­ly pre­vents the for­ma­tion of a poli­ti­cian class always ten­ding to pride them­selves on their condi­tion and always see­king to enjoy privileges.

The major pro­tec­tive prin­ciple is this : the gover­nors are more res­pect­ful of the gover­ned when they know with cer­tain­ty that they will soon return them­selves to the ordi­na­ry condi­tion of the governed.

  1. The draw is easy, fast and economical.
  2. Chance and large num­bers natu­ral­ly and mecha­ni­cal­ly, make for a repre­sen­ta­tive sample. Nothing bet­ter than the draw to com­pose an Assem­bly that looks exact­ly like the people who want to be repre­sen­ted. No need for quo­tas, no risk of intrigues.
  3. Kno­wing that he may be drawn encou­rages eve­ry citi­zen to learn and to par­ti­ci­pate in public contro­ver­sy : it is a peda­go­gi­cal way of intel­lec­tual emancipation.
  4. Having been drawn pushes citi­zens to for­get their per­so­nal preoc­cu­pa­tions and to be concer­ned about the com­mon world ; their desi­gna­tion and the public eyes pla­ced upon them encou­rage them to learn and to deve­lop skills through their work, just as it does for poli­ti­cians : it is a peda­go­gi­cal way towards citi­zen res­pon­sa­bi­li­ty, all citizens.
  5. To pre­fer the dra­wing by lots is to refuse giving up power of direct suf­frage to the Assem­bly, and it is to attri­bute the highest impor­tance to effec­tive controls of all repre­sen­ta­tives : so, the draw accom­pa­nied by dras­tic controls at all levels, is bet­ter sui­ted than the elec­tion (which assumes that voters are fami­liar with elec­ted offi­cials and their dai­ly actions) to large enti­ties. (While we usual­ly hear the opposite.)
  6. IN FACT, for 200 years of dra­wing by lots eve­ry day (the fifth and fourth cen­tu­ry before JC in Athens), the rich NEVER gover­ned, and the poor always did. (The rich lived very com­for­ta­bly, do not wor­ry, but they could not just grab without limi­ta­tion, for want of poli­ti­cal control.)

This is essen­tial : mecha­ni­cal­ly, inevi­ta­bly, irre­sis­ti­bly, the draw uncouples poli­ti­cal and eco­no­mic power. This is a very cle­ver way to wea­ken the powers in order to prevent abuse.

It is the­re­fore temp­ting to think that it is the elec­tion of poli­ti­cians who made « capi­ta­lism » pos­sible (we should bet­ter say « scu­mism »), and that the draw would deprive the capi­ta­lists of their prin­ci­pal tool of domination.

Étienne Chouard

https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​t​i​r​a​g​e​_​a​u​_​s​o​r​t​.​php

https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​t​r​a​d​u​c​t​i​ons

 

Toc­que­ville, « Demo­cra­cy in Ame­ri­ca »,
Chap­ter XVI : Causes Miti­ga­ting Tyran­ny in the Uni­ted States –
Part II Trial by Jury in the Uni­ted States Consi­de­red as a Poli­ti­cal Institution

Since I have been led by my sub­ject to recur to the admi­nis­tra­tion of jus­tice in the Uni­ted States, I will not pass over this point without adver­ting to the ins­ti­tu­tion of the jury.

Trial by jury may be consi­de­red in two sepa­rate points of view, as a judi­cial and as a poli­ti­cal institution.

If it ente­red into my present pur­pose to inquire how far trial by jury (more espe­cial­ly in civil cases) contri­butes to insure the best admi­nis­tra­tion of jus­tice, I admit that its uti­li­ty might be contested.

As the jury was first intro­du­ced at a time when socie­ty was in an unci­vi­li­zed state, and when courts of jus­tice were mere­ly cal­led upon to decide on the evi­dence of facts, it is not an easy task to adapt it to the wants of a high­ly civi­li­zed com­mu­ni­ty when the mutual rela­tions of men are mul­ti­plied to a sur­pri­sing extent, and have assu­med the enligh­te­ned and intel­lec­tual cha­rac­ter of the age.*

[*The inves­ti­ga­tion of trial by jury as a judi­cial ins­ti­tu­tion, and the appre­cia­tion of its effects in the Uni­ted States, toge­ther with the advan­tages the Ame­ri­cans have deri­ved from it, would suf­fice to form a book, and a book upon a very use­ful and curious sub­ject.
The State of Loui­sia­na would in par­ti­cu­lar afford the curious phe­no­me­non of a French and English legis­la­tion, as well as a French and English popu­la­tion, which are gra­dual­ly com­bi­ning with each other. See the “Digeste des Lois de la Loui­siane,” in two volumes ; and the “Traite sur les Regles des Actions civiles,” prin­ted in French and English at New Orleans in 1830.]

My present object is to consi­der the jury as a poli­ti­cal ins­ti­tu­tion, and any other course would divert me from my subject.

Of trial by jury, consi­de­red as a judi­cial ins­ti­tu­tion, I shall here say but very few words. When the English adop­ted trial by jury they were a semi-bar­ba­rous people ; they are become, in course of time, one of the most enligh­te­ned nations of the earth ; and their attach­ment to this ins­ti­tu­tion seems to have increa­sed with their increa­sing culti­va­tion. They soon spread beyond their insu­lar boun­da­ries to eve­ry cor­ner of the habi­table globe ; some have for­med colo­nies, others inde­pendent states ; the mother-coun­try has main­tai­ned its monar­chi­cal consti­tu­tion ; many of its off­spring have foun­ded power­ful repu­blics ; but whe­re­ver the English have been they have boas­ted of the pri­vi­lege of trial by jury.* They have esta­bli­shed it, or has­te­ned to re-esta­blish it, in all their settlements.

A judi­cial ins­ti­tu­tion which obtains the suf­frages of a great people for so long a series of ages, which is zea­lous­ly rene­wed at eve­ry epoch of civi­li­za­tion, in all the cli­mates of the earth and under eve­ry form of human govern­ment, can­not be contra­ry to the spi­rit of justice.**

[*All the English and Ame­ri­can jurists are una­ni­mous upon this head. Mr. Sto­ry, judge of the Supreme Court of the Uni­ted States, speaks, in his “Trea­tise on the Fede­ral Consti­tu­tion,” of the advan­tages of trial by jury in civil cases : – “ The ines­ti­mable pri­vi­lege of a trial by jury in civil cases ‑a pri­vi­lege scar­ce­ly infe­rior to that in cri­mi­nal cases, which is coun­ted by all per­sons to be essen­tial to poli­ti­cal and civil liber­ty… .” (Sto­ry, book iii., chap. viii.)

**If it were our pro­vince to point out the uti­li­ty of the jury as a judi­cial ins­ti­tu­tion in this place, much might be said, and the fol­lo­wing argu­ments might be brought for­ward among­st others : –

By intro­du­cing the jury into the busi­ness of the courts you are enabled to dimi­nish the num­ber of judges, which is a very great advan­tage. When judges are very nume­rous, death is per­pe­tual­ly thin­ning the ranks of the judi­cial func­tio­na­ries, and laying places vacant for new­co­mers. The ambi­tion of the magis­trates is the­re­fore conti­nual­ly exci­ted, and they are natu­ral­ly made dependent upon the will of the majo­ri­ty, or the indi­vi­dual who fills up the vacant appoint­ments ; the offi­cers of the court then rise like the offi­cers of an army.

This state of things is enti­re­ly contra­ry to the sound admi­nis­tra­tion of jus­tice, and to the inten­tions of the legis­la­tor. The office of a judge is made inalie­nable in order that he may remain inde­pendent : but of what advan­tage is it that his inde­pen­dence should be pro­tec­ted if he be temp­ted to sacri­fice it of his own accord ? When judges are very nume­rous many of them must neces­sa­ri­ly be inca­pable of per­for­ming their impor­tant duties, for a great magis­trate is a man of no com­mon powers ; and I am incli­ned to believe that a hal­fen­ligh­te­ned tri­bu­nal is the worst of all ins­tru­ments for attai­ning those objects which it is the pur­pose of courts of jus­tice to accomplish.

For my own part, I had rather sub­mit the deci­sion of a case to igno­rant jurors direc­ted by a skil­ful judge than to judges a majo­ri­ty of whom are imper­fect­ly acquain­ted with juris­pru­dence and with the laws.]

I turn, howe­ver, from this part of the sub­ject. To look upon the jury as a mere judi­cial ins­ti­tu­tion is to confine our atten­tion to a very nar­row view of it ; for howe­ver great its influence may be upon the deci­sions of the law courts, that influence is very subor­di­nate to the power­ful effects which it pro­duces on the des­ti­nies of the com­mu­ni­ty at large.

The jury is above all a poli­ti­cal ins­ti­tu­tion, and it must be regar­ded in this light in order to be duly appreciated.

By the jury I mean a cer­tain num­ber of citi­zens drawn by lot, and inves­ted with a tem­po­ra­ry right of judging.

Trial by jury, as applied to the repres­sion of crime, appears to me to intro­duce an emi­nent­ly repu­bli­can ele­ment into the govern­ment upon the fol­lo­wing grounds:-

The ins­ti­tu­tion of the jury may be aris­to­cra­tic or demo­cra­tic, accor­ding to the class of socie­ty from which the jurors are selec­ted ; but it always pre­serves its repu­bli­can cha­rac­ter, inas­much as it places the real direc­tion of socie­ty in the hands of the gover­ned, or of a por­tion of the gover­ned, ins­tead of lea­ving it under the autho­ri­ty of the Government.

Force is never more than a tran­sient ele­ment of suc­cess ; and after force comes the notion of right. A govern­ment which should only be able to crush its ene­mies upon a field of bat­tle would very soon be des­troyed. The true sanc­tion of poli­ti­cal laws is to be found in penal legis­la­tion, and if that sanc­tion be wan­ting the law will soo­ner or later lose its cogen­cy. He who punishes infrac­tions of the law is the­re­fore the real mas­ter of socie­ty. Now the ins­ti­tu­tion of the jury raises the people itself, or at least a class of citi­zens, to the bench of judi­cial autho­ri­ty. The ins­ti­tu­tion of the jury conse­quent­ly invests the people, or that class of citi­zens, with the direc­tion of society.*

[*An impor­tant remark must, howe­ver, be made. Trial by jury does unques­tio­na­bly invest the people with a gene­ral control over the actions of citi­zens, but it does not fur­nish means of exer­ci­sing this control in all cases, or with an abso­lute autho­ri­ty. When an abso­lute monarch has the right of trying offences by his repre­sen­ta­tives, the fate of the pri­so­ner is, as it were, deci­ded befo­re­hand. But even if the people were pre­dis­po­sed to convict, the com­po­si­tion and the non-res­pon­si­bi­li­ty of the jury would still afford some chances favo­rable to the pro­tec­tion of innocence.]

In England the jury is retur­ned from the aris­to­cra­tic por­tion of the nation;** the aris­to­cra­cy makes the laws, applies the laws, and punishes all infrac­tions of the laws ; eve­ry­thing is esta­bli­shed upon a consistent foo­ting, and England may with truth be said to consti­tute an aris­to­cra­tic republic.

[**This may be true to some extent of spe­cial juries, but not of com­mon juries. The author seems not to have been aware that the qua­li­fi­ca­tions of jurors in England vary exceedingly.]

In the Uni­ted States the same sys­tem is applied to the whole people. Eve­ry Ame­ri­can citi­zen is qua­li­fied to be an elec­tor, a juror, and is eli­gible to office.* The sys­tem of the jury, as it is unders­tood in Ame­ri­ca, appears to me to be as direct and as extreme a conse­quence of the sove­rei­gn­ty of the people as uni­ver­sal suf­frage. These ins­ti­tu­tions are two ins­tru­ments of equal power, which contri­bute to the supre­ma­cy of the majority.

All the sove­rei­gns who have cho­sen to govern by their own autho­ri­ty, and to direct socie­ty ins­tead of obeying its direc­tions, have des­troyed or enfee­bled the ins­ti­tu­tion of the jury. The monarchs of the House of Tudor sent to pri­son jurors who refu­sed to convict, and Napo­leon cau­sed them to be retur­ned by his agents.

Howe­ver clear most of these truths may seem to be, they do not com­mand uni­ver­sal assent, and in France, at least, the ins­ti­tu­tion of trial by jury is still very imper­fect­ly unders­tood. If the ques­tion arises as to the pro­per qua­li­fi­ca­tion of jurors, it is confi­ned to a dis­cus­sion of the intel­li­gence and know­ledge of the citi­zens who may be retur­ned, as if the jury was mere­ly a judi­cial ins­ti­tu­tion. This appears to me to be the least part of the sub­ject. The jury is pre-emi­nent­ly a poli­ti­cal ins­ti­tu­tion ; it must be regar­ded as one form of the sove­rei­gn­ty of the people ; when that sove­rei­gn­ty is repu­dia­ted, it must be rejec­ted, or it must be adap­ted to the laws by which that sove­rei­gn­ty is esta­bli­shed. The jury is that por­tion of the nation to which the exe­cu­tion of the laws is entrus­ted, as the Houses of Par­lia­ment consti­tute that part of the nation which makes the laws ; and in order that socie­ty may be gover­ned with consis­ten­cy and uni­for­mi­ty, the list of citi­zens qua­li­fied to serve on juries must increase and dimi­nish with the list of elec­tors. This I hold to be the point of view most wor­thy of the atten­tion of the legis­la­tor, and all that remains is mere­ly accessory.

I am so enti­re­ly convin­ced that the jury is pre-emi­nent­ly a poli­ti­cal ins­ti­tu­tion that I still consi­der it in this light when it is applied in civil causes.

Laws are always uns­table unless they are foun­ded upon the man­ners of a nation ; man­ners are the only durable and resis­ting power in a people.

When the jury is reser­ved for cri­mi­nal offences, the people only wit­nesses its occa­sio­nal action in cer­tain par­ti­cu­lar cases ; the ordi­na­ry course of life goes on without its inter­fe­rence, and it is consi­de­red as an ins­tru­ment, but not as the only ins­tru­ment, of obtai­ning justice.

This is true a for­tio­ri when the jury is only applied to cer­tain cri­mi­nal causes.

When, on the contra­ry, the influence of the jury is exten­ded to civil causes, its appli­ca­tion is constant­ly pal­pable ; it affects all the inter­ests of the com­mu­ni­ty ; eve­ryone coope­rates in its work : it thus pene­trates into all the usages of life, it fashions the human mind to its pecu­liar forms, and is gra­dual­ly asso­cia­ted with the idea of jus­tice itself.

The ins­ti­tu­tion of the jury, if confi­ned to cri­mi­nal causes, is always in dan­ger, but when once it is intro­du­ced into civil pro­cee­dings it defies the aggres­sions of time and of man. If it had been as easy to remove the jury from the man­ners as from the laws of England, it would have per­ished under Hen­ry VIII, and Eli­za­beth, and the civil jury did in rea­li­ty, at that per­iod, save the liber­ties of the country.

In wha­te­ver man­ner the jury be applied, it can­not fail to exer­cise a power­ful influence upon the natio­nal cha­rac­ter ; but this influence is pro­di­gious­ly increa­sed when it is intro­du­ced into civil causes.

The jury, and more espe­cial­ly the jury in civil cases, serves to com­mu­ni­cate the spi­rit of the judges to the minds of all the citi­zens ; and this spi­rit, with the habits which attend it, is the soun­dest pre­pa­ra­tion for a free people.

It imbues all classes with a res­pect for the thing jud­ged, and with the notion of right. If these two ele­ments be remo­ved, the love of inde­pen­dence is redu­ced to a mere des­truc­tive passion.

It teaches men to prac­tice equi­ty, eve­ry man learns to judge his neigh­bor as he would him­self be jud­ged ; and this is espe­cial­ly true of the jury in civil causes, for, whil­st the num­ber of per­sons who have rea­son to appre­hend a cri­mi­nal pro­se­cu­tion is small, eve­ry one is liable to have a civil action brought against him.

The jury teaches eve­ry man not to recoil before the res­pon­si­bi­li­ty of his own actions, and impresses him with that man­ly confi­dence without which poli­ti­cal vir­tue can­not exist.

It invests each citi­zen with a kind of magis­tra­cy, it makes them all feel the duties which they are bound to discharge towards socie­ty, and the part which they take in the Govern­ment. By obli­ging men to turn their atten­tion to affairs which are not exclu­si­ve­ly their own, it rubs off that indi­vi­dual ego­tism which is the rust of society.

The jury contri­butes most power­ful­ly to form the judg­ment and to increase the natu­ral intel­li­gence of a people, and this is, in my opi­nion, its grea­test advan­tage. It may be regar­ded as a gra­tui­tous public school ever open, in which eve­ry juror learns to exer­cise his rights, enters into dai­ly com­mu­ni­ca­tion with the most lear­ned and enligh­te­ned mem­bers of the upper classes, and becomes prac­ti­cal­ly acquain­ted with the laws of his coun­try, which are brought within the reach of his capa­ci­ty by the efforts of the bar, the advice of the judge, and even by the pas­sions of the par­ties. I think that the prac­ti­cal intel­li­gence and poli­ti­cal good sense of the Ame­ri­cans are main­ly attri­bu­table to the long use which they have made of the jury in civil causes.

I do not know whe­ther the jury is use­ful to those who are in liti­ga­tion ; but I am cer­tain it is high­ly bene­fi­cial to those who decide the liti­ga­tion ; and I look upon it as one of the most effi­ca­cious means for the edu­ca­tion of the people which socie­ty can employ.

What I have hither­to said applies to all nations, but the remark I am now about to make is pecu­liar to the Ame­ri­cans and to demo­cra­tic peoples.

I have alrea­dy obser­ved that in demo­cra­cies the mem­bers of the legal pro­fes­sion and the magis­trates consti­tute the only aris­to­cra­tic body which can check the irre­gu­la­ri­ties of the people. This aris­to­cra­cy is inves­ted with no phy­si­cal power, but it exer­cises its conser­va­tive influence upon the minds of men, and the most abun­dant source of its autho­ri­ty is the ins­ti­tu­tion of the civil jury.

In cri­mi­nal causes, when socie­ty is armed against a single indi­vi­dual, the jury is apt to look upon the judge as the pas­sive ins­tru­ment of social power, and to mis­trust his advice. Moreo­ver, cri­mi­nal causes are enti­re­ly foun­ded upon the evi­dence of facts which com­mon sense can rea­di­ly appre­ciate ; upon this ground the judge and the jury are equal.

Such, howe­ver, is not the case in civil causes ; then the judge appears as a disin­te­res­ted arbi­ter bet­ween the conflic­ting pas­sions of the par­ties. The jurors look up to him with confi­dence and lis­ten to him with res­pect, for in this ins­tance their intel­li­gence is com­ple­te­ly under the control of his learning.

It is the judge who sums up the various argu­ments with which their memo­ry has been wea­ried out, and who guides them through the devious course of the pro­cee­dings ; he points their atten­tion to the exact ques­tion of fact which they are cal­led upon to solve, and he puts the ans­wer to the ques­tion of law into their mouths. His influence upon their ver­dict is almost unlimited.

If I am cal­led upon to explain why I am but lit­tle moved by the argu­ments deri­ved from the igno­rance of jurors in civil causes.

I reply, that in these pro­cee­dings, whe­ne­ver the ques­tion to be sol­ved is not a mere ques­tion of fact, the jury has only the sem­blance of a judi­cial body.

The jury sanc­tions the deci­sion of the judge, they by the autho­ri­ty of socie­ty which they represent, and he by that of rea­son and of law.*

In England and in Ame­ri­ca the judges exer­cise an influence upon cri­mi­nal trials which the French judges have never pos­ses­sed. The rea­son of this dif­fe­rence may easi­ly be dis­co­ve­red ; the English and Ame­ri­can magis­trates esta­blish their autho­ri­ty in civil causes, and only trans­fer it after­wards to tri­bu­nals of ano­ther kind, where that autho­ri­ty was not acquired.

In some cases (and they are fre­quent­ly the most impor­tant ones) the Ame­ri­can judges have the right of deci­ding causes alone.** Upon these occa­sions they are acci­den­tal­ly pla­ced in the posi­tion which the French judges habi­tual­ly occu­py, but they are inves­ted with far more power than the lat­ter ; they are still sur­roun­ded by the remi­nis­cence of the jury, and their judg­ment has almost as much autho­ri­ty as the voice of the com­mu­ni­ty at large, repre­sen­ted by that institution.

Their influence extends beyond the limits of the courts ; in the recrea­tions of pri­vate life as well as in the tur­moil of public busi­ness, abroad and in the legis­la­tive assem­blies, the Ame­ri­can judge is constant­ly sur­roun­ded by men who are accus­to­med to regard his intel­li­gence as super­ior to their own, and after having exer­ci­sed his power in the deci­sion of causes, he conti­nues to influence the habits of thought and the cha­rac­ters of the indi­vi­duals who took a part in his judgment.

The jury, then, which seems to res­trict the rights of magis­tra­cy, does in rea­li­ty conso­li­date its power, and in no coun­try are the judges so power­ful as there, where the people par­takes their privileges.

It is more espe­cial­ly by means of the jury in civil causes that the Ame­ri­can magis­trates imbue all classes of socie­ty with the spi­rit of their profession.

Thus the jury, which is the most ener­ge­tic means of making the people rule, is also the most effi­ca­cious means of tea­ching it to rule well.

Source : http://​seas3​.elte​.hu/​c​o​u​r​s​e​m​a​t​e​r​i​a​l​/​L​o​j​k​o​M​i​k​l​o​s​/​A​l​e​x​i​s​-​d​e​-​T​o​c​q​u​e​v​i​l​l​e​-​D​e​m​o​c​r​a​c​y​-​i​n​-​A​m​e​r​i​c​a​.​pdf p 310 s.

* * * * *

https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​t​i​r​a​g​e​_​a​u​_​s​o​r​t​.​php

 

No Demo­cra­cy without Sor­ti­tion :
the cause of the causes of our power­less­ness
is that we let the poli­ti­cal pro­fes­sio­nals draw up
and modi­fy the Constitution

https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​E​t​i​e​n​n​e​_​C​h​o​u​a​r​d​_​2​0​1​2​_​N​o​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​c​y​-​w​i​t​h​o​u​t​-​S​o​r​t​i​t​i​o​n​.​pdf

Hel­lo :o)

I have come to talk to you about DEMOCRACY, REAL demo­cra­cy : the one that is INEXISTANT and the one we NEED today.

In 2005, during a public debate in France, I wrote a ten-page paper about what revol­ted me in the so-cal­led « consti­tu­tion » that was being pro­po­sed in the refe­ren­dum, and I sent this docu­ment to my close acquain­tances and I pos­ted it on my per­so­nal web­site. And then, eve­ry­thing was tur­ned upside down for me. This suc­cinct argu­ment in favour of the NO vote met an expec­ta­tion and cor­rec­ted a defi­cien­cy. And ordi­na­ry people sent this mes­sage to their contacts, eve­ryw­here in France and even in the world because they trans­la­ted it into 5 or 6 languages…and thanks to Inter­net it has become a big event. On retur­ning home from secon­da­ry school, after my courses, I ope­ned my mail­box and there, a flood of e‑mails began, eve­ry minute dozens of e‑mails, all eve­ning, all night. And in the fol­lo­wing months, I tried to reply to all these people, either people who COUNTED for me or people who were saying BAD THINGS about me ; I tried to be « EQUAL to the SITUATION ».

All the news­pa­pers, radio sta­tions, and tele­vi­sion chan­nels came by my house in order to unders­tand this phe­no­me­non, the meter on my web­site was going like a fan, up to 40,000 visits PER DAY(one hell of a review for a rea­ding panel, I can tell you…), 12, 000 mails in 2 months ! Intense mails, warm mails, deman­ding ones too… And all of this emo­tion stret­ched a BOW within me (and conti­nues to do so today).

I HAVE BEEN PROFOUNDLY CHANGED BY THE WAY OTHERS SEE ME : the gra­te­ful looks and the sus­pi­cious ones. My work has been nou­ri­shed by THE IMPORTANCE THAT I ATTACH TO THE WAY PEOPLE LOOK AT ME. And I dis­co­ve­red recent­ly that men have known for many years that it is impor­tant for the public inter­est : it’s cal­led VERGOGNE it encou­rages vir­tue and it gives cou­rage. For the Athe­nians, it was the foun­da­tion of the life of the City. Pla­to even consi­de­red that we should put to death the citi­zen who was « sha­me­less » extre­me­ly dan­ge­rous for the City. And I believe that this is an essen­tial concept even today.

So, after the refe­ren­dum, I conti­nued and I have been wor­king like a mad­man for the past six years :

And here, in a few words, is the rea­son why I have taken so much trouble :

1) I am trying to unders­tand the MAIN CAUSE OF SOCIAL INJUSTICE,

2) I have dis­co­ve­red the genial ideas upon which ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY was founded,

3) I have given back to cer­tain impor­tant words their REAL MEANING,

4) And I am reflec­ting about the GOOD INSTITUTIONS that would dura­bly pro­tect us, ALL OF US, against the abuse of power.

AND I SHARE THAT with all of those who wish that we should PROGRESS TOGETHER in CONSTANT contro­ver­sy. I am some­times SLANDERED or RECUPERATED OBVIOUSLY but that’s not so impor­tant. In any case, I NEED MY OPPONENTS IN ORDER TO PROGRESS Conse­quent­ly, I AM DOING MY BEST, I’m moving for­ward, I AM LOOKING.

And my method for sear­ching is the Hip­po­cra­tic method, per­haps the best idea in the world.)

This doc­tor used to say : LOOK FOR THE CAUSE OF THE CAUSES !

In other words, to treat an ill­ness, to solve a pro­blem, it is use­less to attack the conse­quences, of course, but also use­less to attack the various causes, given that eve­ry­thing has mul­tiple causes :

THERE IS ALWAYS A DECISIVE CAUSE (not the only one but the one that deter­mines all of the others). THIS IS THE ONE WE WANT.

So, of course I share the com­bat of my resis­tant friends (I have made a dia­gram to represent the tree of injus­tices and spe­cia­li­zed areas of com­bat) but I have obser­ved that the mili­tants ARE ALL FIGHTING AGAINST THE CONSEQUENCES : I have obser­ved that NONE IS CONSIDERING THE ROOT CAUSE. : for me, the ques­tion to be asked is « what makes all of these hor­rors POSSIBLE ? (Envi­ron­men­tal, eco­no­mic, social…).

It is pre­ci­se­ly this that we need to understand.

And I believe that what makes social injus­tice pos­sible, IS THE POLITICAL POWERLESSNESS OF GOOD, NORMAL PEOPLE : IF THE PEOPLE HAD THE POWER TO RESIST, THEY WOULD DO SO VICTORIOUSLY..

But then one asks, where does this power­less­ness of the people come from ? (I am constant­ly loo­king for the cause of the cause).

It has not just fal­len out of the sky, our power­less­ness : it is PROGRAMMED, in a higher text …

An ESSENTIAL TEXT about which nobo­dy could give a toss ! And it is cal­led the CONSTITUTION.

(Nobo­dy could give a hoot, except the mul­ti­na­tio­nals and the banks, take good note…)

It is in the consti­tu­tion that elec­ted mem­bers ARE NOT accountable,

It is in the consti­tu­tion that they CANNOT BE dismissed,

It is in the consti­tu­tion that we CANNOT free­ly choose our candidates,

It is in the consti­tu­tion that the powers ARE NOT separated,

It is in the consti­tu­tion that the people-ini­tia­ted refe­ren­dum is NOT pro­vi­ded for,

It is in the consti­tu­tion that the money is NOT public,

Etc. etc.

But this cause itself (this bad consti­tu­tion), has a PRIMARY cause : Who wrote this text???

How is it that eve­ryw­here in the world, at all times, ALL the consti­tu­tions pro­gram the power­less­ness of the people ? It is cer­tain­ly not a conspi­ra­cy : not eve­ryw­here, not always, it’s not pos­sible… No, this uni­ver­sal pro­cess has a pri­ma­ry and uni­ver­sal cause :

(pay atten­tion) The way I see it is, all of the human beings of the world by lazi­ness, by fear or by igno­rance, GIVE UP ON WRITING THEIR CONSTITUTION THEMSELVES and EVERYONE ACCEPTS THAT IT IS THE poli­ti­cal PROFESSIONALS (mem­bers of par­lia­ment, judges, minis­ters, par­ty mem­bers …) WHO DRAW UP AND MODIFY THE CONSTITUTION !

But one must unders­tand WHAT A CONSTITUTION IS, WHAT ITS PURPOSE IS, eve­ry citi­zen should know that :

We, « the people », need repre­sen­ta­tives, above us, having the power to pro­duce and apply writ­ten law, which paci­fies our socie­ty, by pre­ven­ting the arbi­tra­ry domi­na­tion of the strongest.

From the very begin­ning, we have known that this power is not only USEFUL but it is also DANGEROUS, ALL TYPES of power tend towards ABUSE, ALWAYS. (Mon­tes­quieu), it is like an impla­cable, phy­si­cal law and the brilliant tool to PROTECT US from abuses of power, is the CONSTITUTION.

The Consti­tu­tion is a text which serves to WEAKEN the powers that be. In order to do its job of pro­tec­ting, it must WORRY the powers that be. CONSEQUENTLY THEY MUST FEAR IT !

But if that is the case, IF THE POWERS THAT BE SHOULD FEAR THE CONSTITUTION THEY MUST OBVIOUSLY NOT BE THE ONES TO DRAW IT UP!!!

And yet it is easy to unders­tand and to pre­dict that the poli­ti­cal pro­fes­sio­nals when dra­wing up, them­selves, the rules sup­po­sed to frigh­ten them later, such people are in a situa­tion of CONFLICT of INTEREST, they are at one and the same time judge and jury=> in this spe­ci­fic case, they are UNABLE to be impar­tial : they are obvious­ly going to pro­gram THEIR power and OUR powerlessness.

And we can­not real­ly blame them : NOBODY is strong enough to com­mit poli­ti­cal hara-kiri, it’s nor­mal, any­bo­dy would do the same thing=> IT IS UP TO US, AND US ONLY TO FORBID THEM FROM WRITING, because they will not give it up of their own accord ! NEVER : the solu­tion will not come from them but from us.

Here it is then, the mother of causes (upon which we should UNITE so as to become STRONG): it is not the role of men in power to write the rules of power we must put an end to our resi­gna­tion on this point.

Well, the first deci­sive bat­tle is to give back to IMPORTANT words, their REAL MEANING :

Today, before any­thing else, I AM NOT A « CITIZEN » (a citi­zen is AUTONOMOUS, he votes his own laws), I AM ONLY AN « ELECTOR », that’s to say a poli­ti­cal infant, I AM « HETERONOMOUS » : i.e. I am sub­ject to the laws pas­sed by others than myself.

My « parents » in poli­tics, the elec­ted mem­bers, do not want me to eman­ci­pate myself from them, they do not want me to grow up and to become auto­no­mous : they refuse to let me vote myself for or against the laws to which I am submitted.

Let me remind you of the coup d’État of 4 Februa­ry 2008, during which our so-cal­led « repre­sen­ta­tives » impo­sed upon us, via par­lia­men­ta­ry vote the anti­cons­ti­tu­tio­nal trea­ty that we had just express­ly refu­sed by refe­ren­dum ! This poli­ti­cal rape is extre­me­ly serious and yet we have abso­lu­te­ly NO WAY of resis­ting, even that.

They say that we are « incom­petent » ! They treat us like children !

BUT THAT IS WELL AND TRULY OUR FAULT, per­haps we are chil­dren to a cer­tain extent (chil­dren believe in « Father Christ­mas », elec­tors believe in « uni­ver­sal suf­frage ») : WE ACCEPT to call « demo­cra­cy » (demos cra­tos, the power to the people ) ITS ABSOLUTE OPPOSITE : the so-cal­led modern « demo­cra­cy » what is it ? Well, it’s the only the right to 1) desi­gnate our MASTERS, 2) from among people we have NOT CHOSEN, 3) and without having any means of resis­ting a pos­sible betrayal bet­ween two elec­tions. 4) With, as well the RIGHT OF EXPRESSION —BUT WITHOUT ANY CONSTRAINING FORCE.—, 5) and that’s all.

The real name of this anti-demo­cra­tic regime is « REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT » (at least alle­ged­ly representative)

In fact, we agree to call « Consti­tu­tion » a text which is not one.. We need TO KNOW WHAT WE WANT : THE SIMPLE WORD consti­tu­tion OR THE REAL PROTECTION that it should pro­vide for ?

So ; to resist well, we must begin by a STRIKE AGAINST LYING WORDS such as « demo­cra­cy », « uni­ver­sal suf­frage », « citi­zen » et « consti­tu­tion », which HAVE BEEN GIVEN THE OPPOSITE MEANING by the POWER THIEVES.

And this ANTIDEMOCRATIC pro­ject was MADE ON PURPOSE FROM THE VERY BEGINNING !

SIEYÈS (one of the most influen­tial thin­kers of the French Revo­lu­tion), said in 1789 :

« Citi­zens who desi­gnate repre­sen­ta­tives aban­don and must aban­don making the laws them­selves ; they have no par­ti­cu­lar will to impose. If they dic­ta­ted their will, France would no lon­ger be that repre­sen­ta­tive State ; it would be a demo­cra­tic State. The people, I repeat, in a coun­try that is not a demo­cra­cy , (and France can­not be one), the people can only speak, can only act via their repre­sen­ta­tives ». Abbé SIEYÈS, speech of 7 Sep­tem­ber 1789.

Well, I think that that is clear, isn’t it ?

And this other quo­ta­tion, even more expli­cit from VOLTAIRE :

« A well orga­ni­zed socie­ty is one in which a small num­ber of people make a grea­ter num­ber of people work, is fed by them and governs them ». Vol­taire a demo­crat ? Pull the other one… Oligarch !

HISTORY has shown us in detail the SHAM and the PERMANENT RIGGING of REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT for over 200 years => I warm­ly recom­mend you to watch the videos of Hen­ri Guille­min on the net.

And those people knew very well what they were doing, they knew very well that what they wan­ted was « elec­tion » not dra­wing lots :

ALL OF THE THINKERS OF THE WORLD BEFORE 1789, from Pla­to-Aris­totle to Mon­tes­quieu-Rous­seau, KNEW and wrote that

1) ELECTION IS ARISTOCRATIC BY NATURE, THUS OLIGARCHIC and that 2) THE ONLY DEMOCRATIC PROCEDURE IS THE DRAWING OF LOTS, accom­pa­nied by THOUSANDS OF CHECKS of the people that the luck of the draw has designated.

Read these two quo­ta­tions, 2,000 years apart :

Aris­totle : « Elec­tions are aris­to­cra­tic and not demo­cra­tic : they intro­duce an ele­ment of deli­be­rate choice of the selec­tion of the best citi­zens, the aris­toi, ins­tead of govern­ment by the people as a whole ».

Mon­tes­quieu : « Suf­frage via lots is the nature of demo­cra­cy ; suf­frage by choice is the nature of aristocracy. »

OK, this is not a hare-brai­ned idea of old man Chouard… It is a ques­tion of DEFINITIONS, to be res­pec­ted SO THAT WORDS MAY HAVE A MEANING, SO THAT THEY SHOULD KEEP THEIR « TRUE MEANING ». And it is like that THE WHOLE WORLD OVER.

I should like to refer to his­to­ry and to facts. : WE HAVE TWO, QUITE LONG, HISTORICAL EXPERIENCES : demo­cra­cy and thus the dra­wing of lots, Athens for over 200 years, 2,500 years ago, and repre­sen­ta­tive govern­ment and thus the elec­tion, for over 200 years too, since 1789 => look at the RESULTS :

1) I draw your atten­tion, Ladies and Gent­le­men to the FACT that, for over 200 years, the dra­wing of lots ALWAYS gave power to the poo­rest, « the 99% » (look at the two cen­tu­ries of demo­cra­cy in Athens, there are no exceptions).

2) WHEREAS expe­rience shows us that an ELECTION ALWAYS GIVES POWER TO THE RICHEST 1% (look at the last 200 years, there are no exceptions).

=> So my cen­tral ques­tion is : « HOW MUCH LONGER ARE THE POOR (the 99%) GOING TO PREFER ELECTION to DRAWING OF LOTS???» (against their most obvious interests).

Our pre­fe­rence for elec­tions is incom­pre­hen­sible. There are only MYTHS to explain it : the dra­wing of lots hasn’t been taught for 200 years at the school cal­led « repu­bli­can ». (eve­ry­day they drum it into us that « elections=democracy, democracy=elections…), which explains the intel­lec­tual dif­fi­cul­ty we have in taking this pro­ce­dure on board , the pro­ce­dure that we need so bad­ly (all over the world) to get out of the mess we are in : it takes TIME TO BE DISINTOXICATED.

The dra­wing of lots frigh­tens you ? To reas­sure you, I must warn you against a frequent MISUNDERSTANDING :

In a demo­cra­cy, it is not the people who are cho­sen by lots who decide ! Dra­wing lots serves PRECISELY to WEAKEN THE REPRESENTATIVES (broad­ly spea­king, they are the people who pre­pare the laws and those who apply it : civil ser­vants, police, judges…) => with the dra­wing of lots, we wea­ken these repre­sen­ta­tives SO THAT THEY REMAIN OUR SERVANTS AND NEVER BECOME OUR MASTERS => DRAWING LOTS IS THE GUARANTEE THAT THE PEOPLE WILL REMAIN SOVEREIGN.

I haven’t got time to deve­lop this, but don’t dis­miss too qui­ck­ly the dra­wing of lots in poli­tics : there are LOTS OF EXPERIMENTS ON EARTH WHICH ARE WORKING PERFECTLY : A case in point is BRITISH COLOMBIA (near Van­cou­ver) which had its whole elec­to­ral code rewrit­ten (com­plex and sizeable) by an assem­bly com­po­sed of people who had been desi­gna­ted by the dra­wing of lots, and the sto­ry they told the jour­na­lists, these simple citi­zens alar­med at first but reas­su­red after­wards beco­ming com­petent through their work, and final­ly with tears in their eyes at the moment they sub­mit­ted their text, proud as can be for having suc­cee­ded and obtai­ning 57% of the refe­ren­dum. … All of the expe­riences of citi­zen juries cho­sen by dra­wing lots have revea­led an unde­niable com­pe­tence of the ordi­na­ry citizen.

But let’s be care­ful : to defend this idea of dra­wing lots (for the Consti­tuent assem­bly at least, and pos­si­bly repre­sen­ta­tives after­wards), we can only count on our­selves, nor­mal people, at the base, those who DON’T WANT power.

At this point, I would like to share with you this won­der­ful thought by Alain (the great phi­lo­so­pher), who used to say :

« THE MOST VISIBLE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE JUST MAN IS NOT TO WANT AT ALL TO GOVERN OTHERS, BUT TO GOVERN ONLY HIMSELF. THAT DECIDES EVERYTHING. YOU MIGHT AS WELL SAY THAT THE WORST WILL GOVERN ».

In an elec­to­ral regime, which gives power to those who want it, Alain is right ; the worst will govern.

But on the contra­ry, the dra­wing of lots can get us out of this trap by pro­po­sing power to all of those who don’t want it. (and who are often the best among­st us).

=> We must spread the word, among­st us, among­st « nor­mal » people and we must all become « trai­ners of trai­ners » so that we can QUICKLY become bil­lions of « white cells » (or « well-mea­ning viruses ») dis­se­mi­na­ting a simple and power­ful idea, an idea which aims pre­ci­se­ly (with all of our uni­ted forces) at the Achilles’ heel of the oli­gar­chy : WE DEMAND THE HONESTY OF THE CONSTITUENT PROCESS BY REPLACING ELECTION BY A DRAWING OF LOTS AND THE FORMING OF THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY BY THIS MEANS

15 minutes, it’s too short, I haven’t been able to show you the link (essen­tial !) bet­ween MONEY and the consti­tu­tion (indis­so­ciable).

I don’t have time here to say more : you must go and look for the rest on the web and in books WORK. Have a look at le​-mes​sage​.org for example.

Come and join us on the net : we are cur­rent­ly DEMONSTRATING THAT WE NEED, AND THAT WE ARE CAPABLE, THAT WE WANT TO WRITE OUR OWN CONSTITUTION OURSELVES, OUR SOCIAL CONTRACT.

This idea that I am buil­ding with you, IT WILL WORK FOR EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD

And if there are REALLY LOTS OF US, it will be suf­fi­cient to WANT IT for that to arrive WITHOUT VIOLENCE.

Thank you.

Étienne Chouard.

https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​E​t​i​e​n​n​e​_​C​h​o​u​a​r​d​_​2​0​1​2​_​N​o​-​d​e​m​o​c​r​a​c​y​-​w​i​t​h​o​u​t​-​S​o​r​t​i​t​i​o​n​.​pdf

https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​t​i​r​a​g​e​_​a​u​_​s​o​r​t​.​php

https://​old​.chouard​.org/​E​u​r​o​p​e​/​t​r​a​d​u​c​t​i​ons

 

What a job !

Étienne.

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